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Table 1 Characteristics of trials included in the meta-analysis

From: Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for primary insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

a. Moxibustion vs. Western medications
Included trials Eligibility criteria Interventions and treatment duration Sample and characteristics (male female, age, disease duration) Outcome Criteria (effective rate Criteria)
   Trial Control Trial Control
Wu 2014 [59] CD&TETCMD&S Moxibustion Duration:30d Estazolam Duration:30d 91; AGE: 20-75; Disease duration:3 m-30y 91; AGE: 20-75; Disease duration:3 m-30y; Unclear
Wong 2014 [62] CCMD-3 Moxibustion Duration:20d Estazolam Duration:20d 40 (M: 18, F: 22); AGE: 18-63 (mean: 38); Disease duration: 1.5 m-4y 40 (M: 16; F: 24); AGE: 18-66 (mean: 39); Disease duration:1.2 m-6y GCTNPCM
Yu 2012 [60] -CCMD-3 -ICD10 Moxibustion Duration:21d Estazolam Duration: 14 d 30; AGE: 13-65; Disease duration: 1 m-8 y 30; AGE: 13-65; Disease duration:1 m-8y; GCTNPCM
Ju 2009 [54] Sleep efficiency computation Moxibustion Duration:10d Estazolam Duration: 10 d 40 (M: 18, F: 22); AGE: 25-75; Disease duration: 0.5y-5 y 35 (M: 14 F: 21); AGE: 25-75; Disease duration:0.5y-5y Sleep efficiency computation
Yuan 2007 [61] -CCMD-3 -ICD10 Moxibustion Duration:20d -Diazepam -Oryzanol --VB1 Duration: 20 d 40; AGE 14-65; Disease duration: 1 m-10 y; 40; AGE 14-65; Disease duration:1 m-10 y; GCTNPCM
b. Moxibustion vs. oral Chinese medicine
Included trials Eligibility criteria Interventions and treatment duration Sample and characteristics (male female, age, disease duration) Outcome Criteria (effective rate Criteria)
   Trial Control Trial Control
Jiao 2015 [65] -CCMD-3 -CDT&ETCMD&S -Moxibustion -SanhuangAnshen Decoction Duration: 30d SanhuangAnshen Decoction Duration: 30d 80 (M: 37, F: 43); AGE: (mean: 67.8); Disease duration: -; 79 (M: -, F: -); AGE: (mean: 65.1); Disease duration: -; CDT&ETCMD&S
Liu 2015 [66] -CCMD-3 -GCTNPCM Grain-moxibustion Duration: 14 d Renshenguipi pill Duration: 14 d 38; AGE: 18-70; Disease duration: -; 38; AGE: 18-70; Disease duration: -; GCTNPCM
Zhang 2014 [68] -CCMD-3 -Moxibustion -Huatanjieyu decoction Duration: 10 d Huatanjieyu decoction Duration: 7 d 59; AGE: 34-65; Disease duration: -; 59; AGE: 34-65; Disease duration: -; Unclear
He 2014 [63] -ICD-10- -GCTNPCM -Moxibustion -Tianwangbuxin decoction Duration: 32 d Tianwangbuxin decoction Duration: 28 d 30 (M: 12, F: 18); AGE:30-60 (mean:45.3 ± 4. 4); Disease duration: -; 30 (M: 13, F: 17); AGE:31-60 (mean:46.2 ± 5.1); Disease duration: -; GCTNPCM
Wu 2010 [67] -CCMD-3 -CDT&ETCMD&S -Heat-sensitive Moxibustion –AnshenBunao decoction Duration: 22 d AnshenBunao decoction Duration: 22 d 30 (M: 13, F: 17); AGE:33-74 (mean:46.8); Disease duration: 1 w-2.7 y 30 (M: 11, F: 19); AGE:35-75 (mean:45.7); Disease duration: 1w-2.5 y GCTNPCM
Hu 2007 [64] PSQI Moxibustion Duration: 30 d AnshenBunao Ye Duration: 30 d 30 (M: 12, F: 18); AGE: 19-65; Disease duration: 24 d-16 y 30 (M: 14, F: 16); AGE: 18-67; Disease duration: 20 d-14 y PSQI
c. Moxibustion vs. other TCM therapies
Included trials Eligibility criteria Interventions and treatment duration Sample and characteristics (male female, age, disease duration) Outcome Criteria (effective rate criteria)
   Trial Control Trial Control
Xie 2015 [77] CCMD-3 -Moxibustion -Head-acupoint massage Duration: 28 d Head-acupoint massage Duration: 28 d 30 (M: 17, F: 13); AGE: (mean: 43.3 ± 13.8 y); Disease duration: (mean: 11.5 ± 5.3 m); 30 (M: 14, F: 16); AGE: (mean: 42.7 ± 12.4 y); Disease duration: (mean: 10.8 ± 4.7 m); GCTNPCM
Wang 2014 [76] Unclear -Moxibustion -Point-application Duration:15 d Point-application Duration:15 d 18 (M: 10, F: 8); AGE:39-65y (mean:45.2 y); Disease duration: - 18 (M: 11, F: 7); AGE:41-69y (mean:48.1 y); Disease duration: - Unclear
Xu 2014 [78] CD&TETCMD&S -Heat-sensitive Moxibustion -Head-needle acupuncture Duration:24 d Head-needle acupuncture Duration:24 d 58 (M: -, F: -); AGE: 18-70 y; Disease duration: 12 m-60 m 54 (M: -,F: -); AGE: 18-70 y; Disease duration: 12 m-60 m sleep efficiency by international standard
Shu 2014 [75] GCTNPCM -Moxibustion -Head-acupoint massage Duration:15 d Head-acupoint massage Duration: 15 d 9 (M: 0, F: 9); AGE: 30-56; Disease duration: 2 m-7 m 9 (M: 0, F: 9); AGE: 30-56; Disease duration: 2 m-7 m GCTNPCM
Ma 2014 [73] CCMD-3 -Moxibustion -Auricular-plaster therapy Duration:47 d Auricular-plaster therapy Duration:47 d 99 (M: 38, F: 61); AGE: 20-64 y (mean: 38 ± 13 y); Disease duration: 0.5 y-20y (mean: 7.48 ± 4.57 y) 96 (M: 33, F: 63); AGE: 21-62 y (mean: 37 ± 12 y); Disease duration: 0.5 y-20 y (mean: 7.13 ± 4.92 y) unclear
Li 2014 [70] ICD-10 -Moxibustion -Acupuncture Duration:21 d -Acupuncture Duration:21 d 35 (M: 12, F: 23); AGE: 20-60 y (mean: 45 ± 3. 5 y); Disease duration: 1 m-18 m (mean: 5.5 ± 4.2 m) 35 (M: 8, F: 27); AGE: 25-60 (mean: 48 ± 4. 9 y); Disease duration: 1 m-18 m (mean: 5.6 ± 0.4 m) GCTNPCM
Quan 2012 [74] CCMD-2-R -Moxibustion -Acupuncture Duration:43 d Acupuncture Duration:43 d 36 (M: 15, F: 21); AGE: 19-67 y (mean:38.9 y); Disease duration: 6 m-9 y (mean: 5.3 y); 36 (M: 17, F: 19); AGE: 20-68 y (mean:40.6 y); Disease duration: 5 m-10 y (mean: 5 y); GCTNPCM
Ao 2011 [69] CCMD-3 -Moxibustion -Acupuncture Duration:32-33 d Acupuncture Duration:32-33d 34 (M: 13, F: 21); AGE: (mean:40.54 ± 11.27); Disease duration: (mean: 9.7 ± 2.45 m); 33 (M: 14, F: 19); AGE: (mean:39.67 ± 11.93); Disease duration: (mean: 8.47 ± 1.69 m); Sleep efficiency by international standard
Li 2011 [5] CCMD-3 -Moxibustion -Acupuncture Duration:28 d Acupuncture Duration:28 d 100 (M: 46, F: 54); AGE: (mean: 35.58 ± 9.87); Disease duration: (mean: 21.59 ± 7.87 m); 98 (M: 45, F: 53); AGE: (mean: 36.67 ± 10.93); Disease duration:(mean: 22.76 ± 8.39 m); GCTNPCM
Chen 2010 [71] -CCMD-3 -ICD -10 -Moxibustion -Auricular-plaster therapy Duration:22-23 d Auricular-plaster therapy Duration:22-23d 37 (M: -,F: -); AGE:18-72 (mean:48); Disease duration: 2 m-7y 26 (M: -,F: -); AGE:18-72 (mean:48); Disease duration: 2 m-7 y Unclear
Li 2010 [72] -CCMD-2-R -CD&TETCMD&S -Thunder-fire moxibustion -Acupuncture Duration:10-30 d Acupuncture Duration:10-30d 35 (M: 15, F: 20); AGE: (mean: 35.6); Disease duration: (mean: 3.3 y); 35 (M: 16, F: 19); AGE: (mean: 33.6); Disease duration: (mean: 3.6 y); GCTNPCM
  1. Twenty-two trials (n = 1,971) conducted in China were included in this study
  2. CCMD-2-R = Chinese classification and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders second edition-revision; CCDM-3 = Chinese classification and criteria for disorders 3rd edition; CDT&ETCMD&S = Criteria of Diagnosis and Therapeutic Effects for TCM Disease and Syndrome; GCTNPCM = Guideline for Clinical Trials of New Patent Chinese Medicine; ICD-10 = International Classification of Disease, 10th Version; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; M = month; Y = year; D = day; W = week