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Table 2 Medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in the West Bank regions/Palestine

From: Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine

  Scientific names/Common names/Arabic names/Voucher specimen code Family Part used, method of preparation (herbal formulation) and dosages Cancer Type Preparation method and administration UV
1. Allium cepa L./Onion / Basal/ Pharm-PCT-2703 Amaryllidaceae Bulb/About 20–40 ml of the bulb juice is to be given orally 7–8 times daily for four weeks. Lung and stomach Fresh bulb (oral) 0.29
2. Allium sativum L./ Garlic/Thom/ Pharm-PCT-2704 Amaryllidaceae Bulb/2–3 fresh cloves are eaten raw three times daily with meals. Lung, Esophageal and breast Fresh bulb (oral) 0.46
3. Mangifera indica L./ Mango/ Manga/ Pharm-PCT-2725 Anacardiaceae Fruits/About 300 ml of fresh fruit juice is to be given orally three times daily. Colon Fresh juice (oral) 0.09
4. Pistacia palaestina Boiss./ Mastic tree, Lentisk/ Sirees/ Pharm-PCT-1870 Anacardiaceae Leaves/Powdered leaves mixed with goat fat as paste, applied externally twice daily on cancer area. Skin Paste (topical) 0.59
5. Annona muricata L. / Soursop/ Keshta/ Pharm-PCT-2726 Annonaceae Fruit/One fresh fruit boiled with 100 ml syrup for five minutes; 20 ml of the produced syrup is to be given orally three times daily. Bladder, prostate and colon Syrup (oral) 0.32
6. Daucus guttatus Sm. / Wild Carrot/ Jazar barry/ Pharm-PCT-832 Apiaceae Seeds/About 100–130 powdered seeds steeped in water for 12 hours; 100 ml from the produced infusion is to be orally given four times daily. Skin Infusion (oral) 0.02
7. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss/ Parsley/ Bokdonas/ Pharm-PCT-2739 Apiaceae Fruits/About 500–600 grams from the ground dry fruits boiled with one liter water for 30 minutes; 300 ml of this decoction is to be given orally three times daily. Kidney and bladder Decoction (oral) 0.16
8. Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand./ Apple of Sodom, (mudar)/ A’oshar basek/ Pharm-PCT-472 Apocynaceae Aerial parts (latex)/ Ten grams from air dried latex from the fruits is boiled with 40 ml water; 20 ml of this decoct is to be given twice daily. Skin Decoction (oral) 0.61
9. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don/ Vinca/ Wanaky/ Pharm-PCT-2728 Apocynaceae Entire plant/About 25grams from the powdered plant mixed with 30 ml water; this paste is applied topically once daily. Skin Paste (topical) 0.47
10. Nerium oleander L./Oleander/ Dafla/ Pharm-PCT-1636 Apocynaceae Entire plant/About 20 grams from the powdered plant are mixed with 50 grams lanolin; this cream is applied topically on the skin cancer area directly 4–5 times daily. Skin Cream (topical) 0.53
11. Arum dioscoridis Sm./ Spotted arum/ loof mobarkash/ Pharm-PCT-243 Araceae Leaves/Boil about 10 grams of the dried leaves with 100 ml water, fifty ml of this decoction is to be given orally before meal. Liver and stomach Decoction (oral) 0.66
12. Arum palaestinum Boiss./ Cuckoo pint / loof/ Pharm-PCT-246 Araceae Leaves/Boil about 10 grams of the dried leaves with 150 ml water, fifty ml of this decoction is to be given orally three times daily before meals. Liver, colon, kidney and breast Decoction (oral) 0.63
13. Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All./ David's harp / Khatem Soleyman/ Pharm-PCT-2727 Asparagaceae Rhizomes/Steep 2 grams from the powdered rhizomes with 100 ml water for 5 hours; 20 ml from this infusion is to be given orally three times daily. Liver, brain and spinal cord Infusion (oral) 0.60
14. Brassica oleracea L./Cabbage/ malfof/ Pharm-PCT-1930 Brassicaceae Leaves/100 ml from the fresh cabbage leaf juice is to be given 7–9 times daily. Liver Fresh juice (oral) 0.46
15. Sinapis arvensis L./Wild mustard/ Khardal/ Pharm-PCT-2284 Brassicaceae Seeds/Powdered seeds (2 g) given orally twice daily. Bone Powder (oral) 0.47
16. Capparis spinosa L./Caper bush/ Cobar/ Pharm-PCT-496 Capparaceae Roots/Crushed fresh roots (100 grams) mixed with 10 ml water, made into paste then applied topically once daily. Bones cancer Paste (topical) 0.47
17. Colchicum hierosolymitanum L./ Colchicum/Lohlah/Pharm-PCT-644 Colchicaceae Seeds/50 grams from the ground seeds mixed with 100 grams lanolin a are applied topically once daily on the tumor area. Skin Cream (topical) 0.53
18. Achillea aleppica DC./ Yarrow/ Kaysoom/ Pharm-PCT-16 Compositae Aerial parts/Steep 15grams from the plant with 100 ml water for 2 hours, 10 ml from this infusion is to be given internally twice daily. Liver Infusion (oral) 0.11
19. Cichorium endivia L./Common chicory/ Shokar/ Pharm-PCT-617 Compositae Flowers/Steep 100 grams from the plant with 100 ml water for 2 hours; 30 ml from this infusion is to be given once daily. Stomach and colon Infusion(oral) 0.22
20. Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton/False Yellow head/ Tayon/ Pharm-PCT-2738 Compositae Leaves/ Boil about 20 grams from the flowers with 100 ml water; 30 ml of this decoction is to be given orally three times daily before meals. Kidney and bladder Decoction (oral) 0.32
21. Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.Bip./ Golden Chamomile/Babonaj thahabi/ Pharm-PCT-1519 Compositae Flowers/ In case of lung cancer: Boil 50 grams flowers with 500 ml water; the vapor is inhaled twice daily for 10 minutes each time. In case of liver and prostate cancers: Boil 30 grams from the flowers with 300 ml water for 15 minutes; 100 ml from the decoction is to be given orally twice daily. Lung, liver and prostate Vapor inhalation 0.47
22. Onopordum cynarocephalum subsp./Artichoke Cotton-thistle/ kondrees/ Pharm-PCT-1692 Compositae Flowers/ Steep 50 grams of the dried flowers with 100 ml water for one night; 50 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily. Stomach and colon Infusion (oral) 0.23
23. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn./Milk thistle Khorfeesh/Pharm-PCT-2282 Compositae Stalk/ 30 drops of celery stalk fresh juice is to be given orally every three hours. Colon and skin cancer Fresh juice (oral) 0.32
24. Taraxacum syriacum Boiss./ Common dandelion/Hindeba/ Pharm-PCT-2396 Compositae Leaves/ Boil about 60 grams from the dried powdered plant with 100 ml water for 15 minutes; entire decoction is to be given 3–5 times daily. Pancreatic and gallbladder stomach Decoction (oral) 0.35
25. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad./ Bitter Gourd/Hanthal/Pharm-PCT-628 Cucurbitaceae Fruits/ About 150 grams from the powdered dried fruits mixed with equal quantity of lanolin; the produced cream applied topically twice daily. Skin Cream (topical) 0.13
26. Cucumis sativus L./cucumber/ kheyar/ Pharm-PCT-2737 Cucurbitaceae Seeds/ Steep 4grams of the ground seeds with 100 ml water for 12 hours; 10 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily Colon Infusion (oral) 0.07
27. Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich./ Exploding cucumber / Ketha’ alhemar/ Pharm-PCT-870 Cucurbitaceae Fruits (juice)/ / One fresh fruit pulp (about 25gram) juice is to be orally given five times daily Throat and liver Fresh juice (oral) 0.17
28. Ephedra alata Decne./ Ephedra/ Alanda/ Pharm-PCT-904 Ephedraceae Entire plant/ About 100 grams of the powdered plant boiled with 500 ml water for 5 minutes; 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally twice a day. Brain, liver and colon Decoction (oral) 0.72
29. Arbutus andrachne L./Greek Strawberry Tree/ Kotlob/ Pharm-PCT-213 Ericaceae Fruits/ Boil 50 grams of the ground fruits with 100 ml water and 100 gram sugar; 20 ml of the produced syrup is to be given orally 5–6 times daily. Stomach Syrup (oral) 0.06
30. Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss./ Spurge/Halablabon/Pharm-PCT-988 Euphorbiaceae Entire plant/ Boil 50 grams from the plant with 150 ml water for 10 minutes; 5 ml of this decoction is to be given each 8 hours. Ovarian, breast and prostate Decoction (oral) 0.59
31. Quercus calliprinos Webb/ Palestine oak/ Baloot/ Pharm-PCT-1978 Fagaceae Fruits/ Boil about 20 grams from the fruits with 100 ml water, 20 ml of this decoction is to be given four times daily. Colorectal Decoction (oral) 0.11
32. Quercus ithaburensis Decne./ Valonia oak/Sendnyan/ Pharm-PCT-1980 Fagaceae Bark/ Mix 30 grams of the powdered bark with 100 ml lanolin then apply this cream on the cancer area. Skin Cream (topical) 0.13
33. Hypericum perforatum L./St.John’s Wort/ Oshbat ala’ran/Pharm-PCT-2734 Hypericaceae Flowers/ About 100 grams of the powdered flowers with 100 ml olive oil then filtered and 20 ml of the produced infusion is to be given orally twice daily. Brain Infused in olive oil (oral) 0.05
34. Crocus sativus L./ Saffron/ Za’faran/ Pharm-PCT-2733 Iridaceae Flowers/ Two grams of Saffron powder steeped in 300 ml camel milk; this milk infusion is to be given early morning once daily. Liver and kidney Infusion (oral) 0.46
35. Melissa officinalis L./Balm mint/ Torenjan/ Pharm-PCT-1564 Lamiaceae Aerial parts/ About 10 grams of the fresh leaves are given orally five times daily. Lung and non-Hodgkin lymphoma Fresh plant (oral) 0.27
36. Origanum jordanicum Danin & Kunne/Thyme/Za'atar/Pharm-PCT-1729 Lamiaceae Leaves/ About 50 grams of the leaves boiled in 500 ml water; inhale vapor three times daily, five minutes each time. Lung, throat cancer Vapor inhalation 0.15
37. Rosmarinus officinalis L./ Rosemary/ Hasa alban/ Pharm-PCT-2732 Lamiaceae Leaves/ About 20 grams of the leaves boiled in 600 ml water; inhale vapor three times daily, about ten minutes each time. Lung cancer Vapor inhalation 0.10
38. Salvia fruticosa Mill./ Sage/ Maryamya/ Pharm-PCT-2117 Lamiaceae Aerial parts/ Boil about 70 grams from the leaves with 300 ml water, the decoction is to be given four times daily. Colon and liver Decoction (oral) 0.26
39. Salvia palaestina Benth./Kosa’en(kharna) falestini/ Pharm-PCT-2124 Lamiaceae Leaves/ Fifteen grams of the leaves steeped with 100 ml water for 12 hours; 10 ml from this infusion is to be given twice a day. Brain Infusion (oral) 0.19
40. Teucrium capitatum L./ Teucrium/ Ja’da/ Pharm-PCT-2407 Lamiaceae Entire plant/ About 150 grams of the plant boiled for 10 minutes with water; 30 ml from the produced decoction is to be given once daily. Pancreatic and liver Decoction (oral) 0.42
41. Laurus nobilis L. / Bay/ Gaar/ Pharm-PCT-1366 Lauraceae Leaves/ Ten grams from the dried leaves boiled with 100 ml water; 20 ml of this decoction is to be given before meals 3–4 times daily Prostate Decoction (oral) 0.25
42. Alhagi graecorum Boiss./ Camel-thorn/ ala’alook/ Pharm-PCT-65 Leguminosae Fruits/ About 50 grams from the dried fruits boiled in 300 ml water; 10 ml of this decoction is to be given orally twice daily. Glandular Decoction (oral) 0.13
43. Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc./ Soy/ Soya/ Pharm-PCT-2731 Leguminosae Seeds/ About 100 grams of the seeds boiled in 500 ml water; 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally 5–7 times daily. Breast, ovarian and Hodgkin lymphoma Decoction (oral) 0.19
44. Ononis viscosa subsp. sicula (Guss.) Hub.-Mor./ spiny restharrow/ Shabrak(wassem)/ Pharm-PCT-1686 Leguminosae Entire plant/ About 20–30 grams from the powdered plant boiled in 350 ml water; 10 ml of this decoction is to be given twice daily. Prostate, stomach and breast Decoction (oral) 0.07
45. Linum usitatissimum L./ Flax/ Ketan/ Pharm-PCT-2735 Linaceae Seeds/ Ground Seed (10 grams) are to be given orally three times daily. Ovarian, breast and colon Powder (oral) 0.19
46. Lawsonia inermis L./ Henna / Hena/ Pharm-PCT-2736 Lythraceae Leaves/ A paste from crushed fresh leaves (about 30 grams) are applied externally to affected areas. Skin Paste (topical) 0.22
47. Punica granatum L./ Pomegranate/ Romman/ Pharm-PCT-2730 Lythraceae Fruits (peels)/ About 500 grams of the fruit peels boiled in 1 liter water with 1000 grams sugar; 50 ml of this syrup is to be given twice daily. Colorectal Syrup (oral) 0.27
48. Ficus sycomorus L./ Sycamore Fig / Jomeez/ Pharm-PCT-1030 Moraceae Fruits/ One fresh fruit is boiled with 100 ml syrup for five minute; 20 ml of the syrup is to be given orally 4–6 times daily. Lung Syrup (oral) 0.19
49. Psidium guajava L./ Guava /Juafa/ Pharm-PCT-2720 Myrtaceae Leaves/ A decoction of 100 grams leaves is prepared in one liter water; 2–3 cups are taken orally per day until improvement occurs. Lung and stomach Decoction (oral) 0.19
50. Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. / Broomrape/ Halook/ Pharm-PCT-1746 Orobanchaceae Roots/ About 500 grams of the ground roots boiled in one liter water for 30 minutes,; 50 ml of this decoction is to be given orally once daily. Ovarian and breast Decoction (oral) 0.21
51. Trifolium philistaeum var. filifolium Zohary/ Palestine Clover/ Barsem/ Pharm-PCT-2493 Papilionaceae Flowers/ About 50 grams of the flowers boiled in 60 ml water; 30 ml of this decoction is to be taken internally twice a day. Ovarian, breast and non Hodgkin lymphoma Decoction (oral) 0.14
52. Plantago lanceolata L./ narrowleaf plantain/ Lesan alhamal/ Pharm-PCT-1887 Plantaginaceae Leaves/ About 500 grams of the leaves boiled in 500 ml water; 100 ml of this decoction is to be taken internally 3–5 times a day. Throat Decoction (oral) 0.29
53. Triticum aestivum L./ Bread wheat/ Kameh/ Pharm-PCT-2540 Poaceae Seeds (husk)/ Powdered seed husks (10 grams) are given orally three times daily. Colon Powder (oral) 0.44
54. Portulaca oleracea L./ Little Hogweed/ Farfahena/ Pharm-PCT-1935 Portulacaceae Aerial parts/ About 100 grams of the plant boiled in 500 ml water; 30 ml of this decoction is to be taken 3–5 times a day. Stomach and esophageal Decoction (oral) 0.47
55. Cyclamen persicum Mill./ Cyclamen/ Sapoon alraa’e/ Pharm-PCT-777 Primulaceae Roots/ Twenty five grams of the ground roots boiled in 350 ml water; 30 ml of this decoction is to be given orally twice daily. Prostate and bladder Decoction (oral) 0.21
56. Nigella arvensis L./ Black cumin / Kezha/ Pharm-PCT-1640 Ranunculaceae Seeds/ About 100 grams of the ground seeds boiled in 330 ml water for 10–15 minutes; this decoction is to be taken 4–5 times daily Lung, brain and skin Decoction (oral) 0.49
57. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.)Desf./ Christ's Thorn Jujube/ Cedar/ Pharm-PCT-2693 Rhamnaceae Flowers/ About 100 grams of the flowers boiled in 500 ml water; 50 ml of this decoction is to be given internally 4–7 times daily. Lung Decoction (oral) 0.31
58. Crataegus azarolus L./ Azarole Hawthorn/ Za’ror/ Pharm-PCT-712 Rosaceae Fruits/ One kilogram of fresh fruit boiled with 1000 ml syrup for 30 minute; 50 ml of the syrup is to be given 5–6 times per day. Lung Syrup (oral) 0.41
59. Galium aparine L./ Stickyweed/ Satoor/ Pharm-PCT-1069 Rubiaceae Leaves/ Fifty grams of the leaves steeped with 100 ml water for one night; 10 ml from this infusion is to be given twice daily. Hodgkin Lymphoma Infusion (oral) 0.11
60. Salix alba L./ White Salix/ Sofsaf abyad/ Pharm-PCT-2093 Salicaceae Bark/ About 60 grams from the plant boiled with 500 ml water for 10 minutes; 50 ml of this decoction is to be given orally each 6 hours. Colon Decoction (oral) 0.19
61. Viscum cruciatum Sieber ex Boiss./ Mistletoe/ hedal/ Pharm-PCT-2662 Santalaceae Leaves/ About 500 grams from the powdered plant boiled with one liter water for 10 minutes; 50 drops of this decoction is to be given three times daily. Esophageal Decoction (oral) 0.51
62. Acer obtusifolium Sm./ Syrian Maple/ Kaikab/ Pharm-PCT-15 Sapindaceae Fruits/ About 500 grams of the fresh fruits boiled with 100 ml water and 100 gram sugar; 20 ml of the resulting syrup is to be given 6–8 times per day. Throat and lung Syrup (oral) 0.21
63. Verbascum sinuatum L./ Mullein/ A’awarwar/ Pharm-PCT-2604 Scrophulariaceae Leaves/ Five grams of the leaves boiled with 150 ml water for 30 minutes; 15 ml of this decoction is to be given orally twice daily. Breast Decoction (oral) 0.59
64. Capsicum annuum L/ Chili pepper/ Shatta/ Pharm-PCT-2729 Solanaceae Fruits/ Four fruits (100 grams) from the plant boiled with 200 ml water for 20 minutes; 5 drops of this decoction is to be given orally each 8 hours. Skin, bladder Decoction (oral) 0.16
65. Lycium europaeum L./ Box thorn/ A’wsaj/ Pharm-PCT-1487 Solanaceae Fruit/ About half kilogram from the fruit boiled with 500 ml water for one hour; 50 ml of this decoction is to be given once daily. Bladder, prostate and breast Decoction (oral) 0.37
66. Mandragora autumnalis Mill./Mandrake/ Tofah almajan/ Pharm-PCT-1509 Solanaceae Fruits/ Ten grams from the plant boiled with100 ml water for 30 minutes, 5 drops of this decoction is to be given twice daily. Lung Decoction (oral) 0.21
67. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal/ Ashwagandha/ A’eba’b monawem/ Pharm-PCT-2678 Solanaceae Roots/ About 50 grams of the ground roots steeped with 100 ml water for 24 hours; 10 ml from this infusion is to be given twice daily. Esophageal, skin and prostate Infusion (oral) 0.19
68. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze /Green Tea/ Shae akhdar/ Pharm-PCT-2706 Theaceae Leaves/ About 50 grams from the plant boiled with 300 ml water for 10 minutes; this decoction is to be given 6–8 times daily. Breast, lung and ovarian Decoction (oral) 0.31
69. Daphne linearifolia L./ Mezereon/ Mazeryon/ Pharm-PCT-825 Thymelaeaceae Fruits/ A decoction is prepared from 7 to 8 fruits (about 100 grams) boiled in 1 liter water and taken orally, 1 ml two times per day and taken for 14 days. Lung Decoction (oral) 0.04
70. Urtica urens L./ Small Nettle/ Korees harek/ Pharm-PCT-2562 Urticaceae Aerial parts/ About 100–120 grams of the plant boiled with 500 ml water for 30 minutes; 50 ml of the decoction is to be given three times daily. Bones and stomach Decoction (oral) 0.51
71. Curcuma longa L./ Turmeric/ Korkom/ Pharm-PCT-2709 Zingiberaceae Rhizomes/ About 500 grams from the ground dry rhizomes boiled with one liter water for 30 minutes; 300 ml of this decoction is to be given orally three times daily. Prostate, bladder and liver Decoction (oral) 0.53
72. Zingiber officinale Roscoe/ Ginger/ Zangabil/ Pharm-PCT-2724 Zingiberaceae Rhizomes/ About 100 grams of the ground dry rhizomes are boiled in 300 ml water for 10 minutes and given twice daily after meals. Stomach and liver Infusion (oral) 0.51