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Table 2 Hierarchical Regression Analyses Testing the Contribution of Utilitarian and Symbolic Values to Dimensions of the CAM Consumer Commitment Model (N = 159)

From: Reasons for continuing use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in students: a consumer commitment model

Outcome Continued CAM use intentions CAM consumer self-perceptions WOM behavior index
Predictor Step 1 β Step 2 β Step 1 β Step 2 β Step 1 β Step 2 β
Age .16 .11 .18** .15** .15 .13
Gender .05 .02 .02 -.04 .03 -.01
Utilitarian values (trust in CAM) --- .47** --- .35** --- .33**
Symbolic values --- .25** --- .44** --- .31**
  Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2
R 2 .03 .47 .03 .57 .02 .37
F 2.06 31.89** 2.53 47.22** 1.69 21.11**
Δ R 2 .03 .44 .03 .53 .02 .35
Δ F 2.06 60.04** 2.53 88.89** 1.69 39.64**
  1. Note: The degrees of freedom (df) for the F value vary according to the number of predictors entered in each step: two predictors, first step, df = (2, 287); second step with four predictors, df = (4, 280); ** p < .01