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Table 4 Effects of Clinacanthus nutans extracts on serum insulin resistance biomarkers in high fat and high cholesterol-fed rats after 7 weeks of intervention

From: Effects of phenolic-rich extracts of Clinacanthus nutans on high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance

Groups   Insulin resistance biomarkers
Insulin (ng/ml) Glucose (mmol/l) HUMAN-IR RBP4 (ng/ml) Adiponectin (ng/ml) Leptin (ng/ml)
NC 1.23 ± 0.09a 4.42 ± 0.34a 5.12 ± 1.12a 25.00 ± 1.72a 88.76 ± 16.86a 7.02 ± 0.81a
HFHC 2.97 ± 0.12b 6.20 ± 0.22b 17.36 ± 3.11b 56.50 ± 1.96b 41.54 ± 02.41b 3.21 ± 1.12b
STATIN 2.54 ± 0.11c 5.45 ± 1.26b 13.05 ± 2.09b 54.10 ± 4.26b 203.63 ± 07.43c 8.35 ± 0.92a
AL (H) 1.54 ± 0.09d 4.95 ± 0.36a 7.19 ± 1.51a 30.00 ± 7.32a 134.25 ± 05.50d 12.00 ± 0.41c
AL (M) 1.92 ± 0.12e 5.38 ± 0.57a 9.73 ± 1.29c 35.20 ± 6.68a 83.25 ± 11.11a 8.13 ± 0.51a
AL (L) 2.34 ± 0.10f 5.83 ± 0.22b 12.79 ± 1.90b 47.30 ± 12.32b 63.15 ± 06.07a 5.86 ± 1.24a
MULTI (H) 1.82 ± 0.10e 5.27 ± 0.44a 9.05 ± 1.51c 32.50 ± 8.32a 82.90 ± 21.20a 13.01 ± 1.01c
MULTI (M) 2.51 ± 0.12f 5.44 ± 0.12c 12.87 ± 1.43b 45.20 ± 2.28c 52.06 ± 22.40a,b 8.59 ± 0.73a
MULTI (L) 2.83 ± 0.21g 5.75 ± 0.32 b, c 15.34 ± 1.12b 50.40 ± 1.07b 69.25 ± 15.87a,b 6.43 ± 0.92a
  1. Values represent means ± SD (n = 7/group). Different superscript letters in each column indicate statistical difference (p < 0.05) according to Duncan’s multiple range tests. Groupings are the same as Fig. 1