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Table 4 Identified of phenolic acids and flavonoids from S. crispus leaves collected from three different locations

From: Phytochemical constituents and biological activities of different extracts of Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Bremek leaves grown in different locations of Malaysia

Secondary metabolites Penang Selangor Kelantan
Phenolic acids
 Caffeic acid 1.94 ± 0.566c 2.52 ± 0.206b 2.95 ± 0.311a
 Ferulic acid 0.85 ± 0.426c 1.15 ± 0.112b 1.76 ± 0.160a
 trans-Cinnamic acid 0.44 ± 0.335a ND ND
 Chlorogenic acid ND 0.5 ± 0.116b 0.75 ± 0.128a
 Gallic acid 0.8 ± 0.228c 1.08 ± 0.221b 1.45 ± 0.326a
Flavonoids
 Quercetin 0.82 ± 0.346c 1.4 ± 0.330b 1.95 ± 0.334a
 Rutin 0.79 ± 0.122c 1.04 ± 0.166b 1.48 ± 0.269a
 Kaempferol ND 0.54 ± 0.066a 0.56 ± 0.041a
 Catechin 0.65 ± 0.244b 0.72 ± 0.114b 1.12 ± 0.220a
 Naringenin ND ND 0.58 ± 0.063a
 Apigenin 0.33 ± 0.106c 0.6 ± 0.105b 0.92 ± 0.325a
  1. All analyses are the mean of triplicate measurements ± standard deviation. Results expressed in mg/g DM. Means not sharing a common letter in each row were significantly different at p < 0.05. ND represent not detected