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Table 1 Progression toward clonic-like movement with PTZ in adult zebrafish

From: Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

Stage Stage description PTZ Concentration at which the behavior is first seen
1 Stay or move near the bottom of the tank 0.10 mg/ml (0.72 mM)
2 Rapid movement in all directions, 0.10 mg/ml (0.72 mM)
3 Hit the tank walls 0.50 mg/ml (3.6 mM)
4 Rapidly go to the water surface and then rapidly go to the bottom of the tank 0.70 mg/ml (5.0 mM)
5 Shaking movement a
6 Erratic movements (circular motion, diagonal movement) 0.70 mg/ml (5.0 mM)
7 Wild jumping, Clonic-like movement (convulsion) then loss of coordination/ posture, remaining at the bottom 0.70 mg/ml (5.0 mM)
8 Recover posture/motion 0.70 mg/ml (5.0 mM)
9 Death 1 mg/mlb (7.5 mM)
  1. Zebrafish (n = 6–12 per concentration) were exposed to different concentrations of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) for 30 min. The development of convulsions was analyzed by observation of video tapes. At higher concentrations (6–20 mg/ml) some pre-convulsion stages were not observed
  2. aFew naive zebrafish presented this stage, but it was observed in zebrafish challenged with PTZ (3 mg/ml, 21.7 mM) after pretreatment with AEDs or valerians
  3. bSome animals survived after 30 min