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Fig. 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

Fig. 4

Concentration-response curves of valerenic acid, ethanolic and aqueous valerian extract. Zebrafish (n = 12–20 fish per concentration) were exposed to valerenic acid (VA), ethanolic (ValE) or aqueous (ValA) valerian extracts followed by PTZ challenge. The dashed line represents the seizure latency in untreated fish. All values above the solid horizontal line are significantly different from untreated animals, p < 0.001 or p < 0.0001. (Statistics were omitted for clarity). The threshold concentrations for significant increases in latency were 18.5 μg/ml for valerenic acid, 0.5 mg/ml for the ethanolic valerian extract, and 5 mg/ml for the aqueous valerian extract

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