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Fig. 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

Fig. 3

Latency to Stage 7, convulsion-like behavior with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the ethanolic valerian extract. Zebrafish were exposed for 1 h to gabapentin (GBP, 1 mg/ml; 5.8 mM), valproate (VPA, 1 mg/ml; 6 mM), phenytoin (PHT, 2 mg/ml; 7.9 mM), or the ethanolic valerian extract (ValE, 1 mg/ml). All AEDs significantly increased the latency period to Stage 7 PTZ-induced convulsions (PTZ, 3 mg/ml) when compared with untreated zebrafish. Similarly, the ethanolic valerian extract also increased the latency. Ethanol (EtOH) present in the ethanolic valerian extract (0.47 %) had no effect. Data are mean ± SEM of experiments with 9–12 fish per treatment. Inter-group comparisons were by ANOVA. ** p < 0.001 or *** p < 0.0001 vs PTZ

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