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Table 2 Experience of labour, acupuncture treatment and emotional wellbeing assessed at two months after birth

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a two month follow up of recollection of pain and birth experience

  MA EA SC MA vs. SCa EA vs. SCa EA vs. MAb
  n = 67 n = 78 n = 72    
Labour pain     Mean difference (CI 95 %)c Mean difference (CI 95 %)c Mean difference (CI 95 %)c
Recalled labour pain, mean (SE) 69.3 (3.0) 68.7 (2.8) 70.1 (2.8) 0.8 (−6.3–7.9) 1.3 (−5.5–8.1) 0.5 (−6.4–7.4)
Peak pain (measured during labour), mean (SE) 81.6 (1.6) 83.2 (1.6) 85.8 (1.6) 4.1 (0.3–8.1) 2.6 (−1.2–6.4) −1.6 (−5.3–2.2)
Difference between peak and recalled pain (SE) 11.7 (3.0) 14.1 (2.8) 13.7 (2.8) 2.0 (−5.1–9.2) −0.4 (−7.2–6.4) −2.4 (−9.3–4.5)
     OR (CI 95 %)d OR (CI 95 %)d OR (CI 95 %)d
Pain worse than expected (%) 42.4 42.7 47.1 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 1.0 (0.5–2.0)
Sufficient pain relief (%) 75.4 84.4 75.0 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 2.1 (0.9–4.9) 1.7 (0.7–4.0)
Acupuncture treatment      
Would choose the treatment in a forthcoming labour (%) 52.2 50.6     0.8 (0.4–1.5)
Effective for reducing pain (%) 34.3 50.7     1.8 (0.9–3.6)
Effective for relaxation (%) 47.7 51.4     1.1 (0.5–2.1)
Psychological outcomes    Mean difference (CI 95 %)c Mean difference (CI 95 %)c Mean difference (CI 95 %)c
No. positive emotions, mean (SE) 4.0 (0.4) 4.4 (0.4) 4.0 (0.4) 0.0 (−0.9–1.0) −0.4 (−1.4–0.5) −0.5 (−1.4–0.5)
No. negative emotions, mean (SE) 1.9 (0.2) 1.7 (0.2) 1.8 (0.2) −0.1 (−0.7–0.5) 0.7 (−0.5–0.6) 0.2 (−0.4–0.7)
     OR (CI 95 %)d OR (CI 95 %)d OR (CI 95 %)d
Overall positive emotions (%) 87.9 84.6 81.9 1.6 (0.6–4.1) 1.3 (0.5–3.0) 0.8 (0.3–2.1)
Positive birth experience (%) 64.6 61.0 54.3 1.8 (0.9–3.7) 1.4 (0.7–2.6) 0.8 (0.4–1.5)
Depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥13) (%) 4.5 5.1 8.3 0.3 (0.1–1.7) 0.5 (0.1–2.1) 3.1 (0.6–16.2)
  1. SC = Standard care, MA = Manual acupuncture, EA = Electro-acupuncture, SE = Standard Error, OR = Odds Ratio, CI = 95 % Confidence interval
  2. aSC is reference
  3. bMA is reference
  4. cAnalysed by a generalized linear model (GLM) and adjusted for age and education
  5. dAnalysed by logistic regression and adjusted for age and education