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Table 1 Characteristics of the women, use of pain relief, labour outcomes and infant data

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a two month follow up of recollection of pain and birth experience

  MA (n = 83) EA (n = 87) SC (n = 83)    
Characteristics of the women      
 Age (years), mean (SD) 26.5 (4.8) 27.6 (4.6) 28.3 (5.0)    
 Born in Sweden (%) 91.3 89.7 90.2    
 Higher education (%) 35 44.8 54.2    
 Single parent (%) 14.5 18.4 15.7    
 Smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy (%) 23.0 19.5 19.7    
 Body mass index in early pregnancy, mean (SD) 24.4 (5.0) 24.2 (3.8) 24.9 (4.1)    
 Cervix dilatation at admission (cm), mean (SD) 3.6 (1.5) 4 (1.6) 3.6 (1.8)    
 Membranes ruptured before admission (%) 30.5 28.7 33.3    
     MA vs. SC EA vs. SC MA vs. EA
Labour outcomes and pain relief      
     OR (CI)a OR (CI)a OR (CI)b
 Nitrous Oxide (%) 95.1 95.4 93.8 1.89 (0.43–8.37) 1.52 (0.39–5.96) 0.80 (0.17–3.75)
 Sterile water injections (%) 12.2 4.7 10.0 1.15 (0.42–3.14) 0.40 (0.11–1.40) 0.35 (0.10–1.17)
 TENS (%) 14.5 12.6 48.1 0.17 (0.77–0.37) 0.16 (0.73–0.34) 0.94 (0.38–2.33)
 Morphine (%) 10.8 1.2 6.3 1.87 (0.59–5.95) 0.17 (0.20–1.53) 0.09 (0.01–0.76)
 Epidural analgesia (%) 61.4 46.0 69.9 0.62 (0.32–1.20) 0.35 (0.19–0.67) 0.57 (0.31–1.06)
 Mode of Delivery       
 Normal vaginal (%) 74.7 74.7 74.7 0.97 (0.46–2.02) 0.94 (0.46–1.91) 0.97 (0.48–1.99)
 Instrumental vaginal (%) 16.9 19.5 12.0 1.52 (0.61–3.81) 1.93 (0.81–4.63) 1.27 (0.56–2.87)
 Caesarean (%) 8.4 5.7 13.3 0.64 (0.23–1.79) 0.41 (0.14–1.26) 0.65 (0.20–2.14)
     HR (CI 95 %)a HR (CI 95 %)a HR (CI 95 %)b
 Duration of labour (minutes) mean (SD) c 619 (378) 500 (319) 615 (398) 1.03 (0.75–1.41) 1.44 (1.06–1.97) 1.41 (1.03–1.91)
Infant data     OR (CI)a OR (CI)a OR (CI)b
 Transferal to neonatal care unit (%) 3.6 11.5 4.9 0.91 (0.19–4.31) 2.82 (0.82–9.68) 3.11 (0.81–11.98)
     p p p
 Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes (%) 1.2 2.3 0 1.00 0.68 0.69
 Umbilical cord arterial pH, mean (SD) 7.3 (0.7) 7.2 (0.7) 7.3 (0.8) 1.00 0.52 0.45
 Umbilical cord venous pH, mean (SD) 7.3 (0.7) 7.3 (0.8) 7.3 (0.6) 1.00 0.68 0.69
 Head circumference (cm), mean (SD) 34.9 (1.4) 34.9 (1.3) 35 (1.3)    
 Birth weight (grams), mean (SD) 3508 (410) 3590 (456) 3654 (493)    
  1. MA Manual acupuncture, EA Electro-acupuncture, SC Standard care, SD Standard deviation, OR Odds Ratio, HR Hazard Ratio, CI 95 % Confidence interval, SD Standard Deviation, TENS Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
  2. aSC is reference
  3. bMA is reference, adjusted for age and education
  4. cFrom first treatment to partus