Effect of FS on Levels of Plasma Pro-Inflammatory TNFα. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα were determined from plasma samples collected during and after FS supplementation at week 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8. Panel A displays comparison between healthy controls (n = 5) and all cystic fibrosis patients (n = 10). Panel B displays comparison between healthy controls (n = 5), cystic fibrosis patients with low lignans (n = 6), and cystic fibrosis patients with high lignans (n = 4). * signifies p < 0.05 for comparison between any time point in each respective cohort versus baseline (pre-FS).