Effects of the extracts on HIV-1 entry. U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells were treated with TXE (A) or VAD (B) at a concentration of 10 μg/ml for 30 min and then infected with HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped T-tropic HIV-1 HXB2 envelope (HXB2) or without envelope (-) for 2 hr. Forty-eight hours post infection, cells were harvested for the Luc activity assay. HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped with VSV-G envelope (VSV-G) were included as a control. DMSO (0.1%) was also included as a solvent control for the extracts. The data were mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments.