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Table 1 Plant extracts used in this study and some of their common chemical constituents

From: Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

PLANT BOTANICAL NAME PLANT FAMILY PART USED KEY CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Alfalfa Medicago sativa L. Fabaceae Leaf and stem Organic acids, non-protein amino acids (canavanine), stachydrine, coumarins (medicagol), isoflavonoids (coumestrol), saponins (hederagenin) and steroids (B-sitosterol) [19].
Angelica Angelica archangelica L. Apiaceae Root Furanocoumarins (including xanthotoxin, angelicin, archangelin and osthol in roots) [19, 20].
Anise Illicium verum Hook. F. Illiaceae Fruit Essential oil (up to 8% dry weight) consisting of trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, methylchavicol and other monoterpenoids [19].
Bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus L. Fucaceae Thallus Alginic acid, alginates, polysaccharides and iodine [20].
Borage Borago officinalis L. Boraginaceae Leaf, flowers and stem Mucilages, trace amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including amabiline and supinidine [19, 20].
Buchu Agathosma betulina (Berg) Pill. Rutaceae Leaf Essential oils, mucilages, resins and flavonoids (mainly diosmin) [19].
Burdock Arctium lappa L. Asteraceae Root Sulfur containing Polyacetylenes in roots (including artinal and lappaphens) [19, 20].
Celery Apium graveolens L. Apiaceae Fruit Essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and furanocoumarins [20].
Chamomile Matricaria recutita L. Asteraceae Leaf, flowers and stem Flavonoids (Apigenin, luteolin, patuletin-7-glycosides), coumarins (umbelliferone and herniarin) [19].
Chickweed Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Caryophyllaceae Leaf and stem Triterpene saponins, coumarins, phytosterols, flavonoids (apigenin, rutin), organic acids and vitamin C [19].
Cleavers Galium aparine L. Rubiaceae Leaf and stem Tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and iridoid glycosides [19].
Comfrey Symphytum spp Boraginaceae Leaves and stem Allantoin, mucilage, and rosmarinic acid [19].
Gotu kola Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Apiaceae Leaf and stem Triterpenes (Asiatic acid and madecassic acid) and triterpenoid ester glycosides (asiaticoside and brahminoside). Also contains volatile oil [19, 20].
Lavender Lavandula angustifolia L. Lamiaceae Leaves and flowers Essential oil monoterpenoids (including linaloyl-acetate, linalool, 1-terpinen-4-ol), leaves contain rosmarinic acid, tannins, coumarins, triterpenes and phenolic acids [19].
Mahonia Mahonia aquifolium Nutt. Berberidaceae Fruit tincture Roots and unripe berries contain the alkaloid berberine [19].
Milk thistle Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae Fruit Lipids, flavolignans (silymarin), benzodioxane (silybinin), isosilybinin, silychristin and silydianin [19].
Orange Citrus aurantium subsp. amara Rutaceae Flowers Peel contains essential oils, bitter flavonone glycosides and bitter triterpenes. Neroli oil is distilled from petals [19]. Flowers contain flavonoids (naringen and neoeriocitrin) [20].
Pomegranate Punica granatum L. Lythraceae Glycerin fruit preparation Fruit rind has gallotannins and ellagitannins (punicalin and punicalagen). Alkaloids present in roots, leaves, bark and young fruit but not rind [19].
Rose Rosa centifolia L. Rosaceae Flowers (both aqueous and tincture) Petals contain tannins, rosehips contain ascorbic acid, carotenoids, pectins, flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and sugars [19].
Tea Camellia sinensis Kuntze Theaceae Leaf extracts of green tea (in glycerine) and white tea (lyophilized powder) Flavan-3-ols (catechins) up to 30% dry weight, quercetin, kaempferol, other acids: gallic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acids [22].
Witch hazel Hamamelis virginiana L. Hamamelida-ceae Leaf Leaves and bark both contain tannins (bark has catechols and hamamelitannins while leaves contain proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins and essential oils) [19].
  1. Extracts indicate being diluted to 6.25 μg* and 1 μg** in TEAC assay