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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

  Mean (SD)
Characteristics Dark chocolate Tomato extract Control P-valuea
  n = 11 n = 15 n = 10  
Age, years 48.8 (12.2) 51.2 (12.1) 57.9 (13.4) .11
Weight, kg 80.3 (17.7) 74.0 (10.3) 75.9 (13.7) .63
Body mass index 26.9 (6.2) 26.2 (3.1) 26.2 (5.2) .87
Abdominal circumference, cm 85.7 (9.5) 87.5 (11.5) 82.2 (9.3) .65
Median systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 135.1 (12.5) 128.2 (11.4) 135.7 (12.4) .18
Median diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 83.6 (10.5) 79.1 (7.5) 77.8 (8.6) .34
Self-reported...     
Dark chocolate intake, g/wk 32.5 (55.0) 70.9 (166.9) 59.0 (61.3) .43
Milk chocolate intake, g/wk 60.0 (120.2) 73.7 (102.7) 99.0 (172.1) .42
Tomato product intake, d/wk 3.1 (1.7) 4.5 (1.4) 3.1 (1.9) .07
Estimated habitual lycopene intake (only subjects ≥ 105 mg/wk)c 211 (74), n = 2 194 (16), n = 2 210 (0), n = 1, not calculated
Moderate physical activity ≥ 30 min, d/wkd 2.9 (2.0) 3.8 (2.5) 3.3 (2.5) .65
Alcohol intake, times/wk 1.4 (1.7) 2.6 (2.3) 2.9 (2.8) .40
Standard drinks/wk 5.2 (6.6) 3.3 (3.0) 8.1 (11.1) .84
Smoking, cigs/d 0 0 0 1
5-point Likert scales     
General healthe 2.3 (0.9) 2.0 (0.8) 2.2 (0.8) .58
Energy levelsf 2.5 (0.8) 2.3 (1.0) 2.3 (0.8) .65
Moodg 2.1 (0.5) 2.1 (0.7) 2.0 (0.7) .92
Bivariate variables     
Gender     
Male 7 7 5 0.7b
Female 4 8 5  
Dietary supplement intake     
If fish oil or garlic = yes 4 9 1 .04b*
no 7 6 9  
  1. a P-values are calculated by Kruskal-Wallis Test or b Fisher's-Exact Test
  2. c Intake of one tomato extract capsule per day equals 105 mg lycopene per week.
  3. d Moderate physical activity, e.g. brisk walk, cycling at regular pace, doubles tennis, swimming
  4. e 5-point scale with 1 = excellent, 2 = very good, 3 = good, 4 = fair, 5 = poor
  5. f 5-point scale with 1 = very energetic, 2 = moderately energetic, 3 = somewhat energetic, 4 = fatigued, 5 = very fatigued
  6. g 5-point scale with 1 = very happy, 2 = happy, 3 = up and down, 4 = unhappy, 5 = very unhappy
  7. * p < 0.05 indicates a significant difference between groups