Protein levels of Trx antagonist Txnip in endothelial cells with different treatments. A: Txnip protein changes in endothelial cells treated with AMPK activator AICAR with or without co-treatment of PA. While PA upregulated the Txnip level, the activation of AMPK pathway using AICAR reduced Txnip levels. B: Role of AMPK in the down-regulatory effect of TXL on Txnip expression in cells treated with or without PA. While PA (0.3 mM) clearly increased the Txnip expression, TXL (100 (g/ml) preconditioning abolished the PA effect. However, AMPK silence induced by the gene specific siRNA (middle panel) appeared to diminish the effect of TXL.