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Table 1 RCT Evidence of Omega-3 Fatty Acids to Improve Respiratory Outcomes in Asthma

From: Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

  Study groups1   
Author, Year, Location: Length & Design Group 1 (n)/Group 4 (n) Group 2 (n)/Group 3 (n) Jadad Total Quality/Allocation Concealment (Internal Validity) Applicability
ADULTS
Arm, 1988[18] England: 10-wk parallel RCT 3.2 g/d EPA + 2.2 g/d DHA (n = NR) Olive oil placebo (dose: NR) (n = NR) 4/Unclear III
Emelyanov, 2002[23] Russia: 8-wk parallel RCT 200 mg/d EPA/DHA + 400 mg/d olive oil (n = 23) 600 mg/d olive oil placebo (n = 23) 5/Unclear III
Kirsch, 1988[22] USA: 8-wk parallel RCT 4.0 g/d EPA ethyl ester (+ trace DHA) (n = 6) 0.1 g/d EPA ethyl ester (+ trace DHA) (n = 6) 3/Unclear I
McDonald, 1991[15] Australia: 10-wk crossover RCT 2.7 g/d EPA + 1.8 g/d DHA (n = 15) 15 g/d olive oil placebo (n = 15) 3/Unclear III
Okamoto, 2000[19] Japan: 4-wk RCT 10–20 g/d perilla seed oil (ALA: NR) (n = 7) 10–20 g/d corn oil (n = 7) 2/Unclear III
Stenius-Aarniala, 1989[21] Finland: 10-wk crossover RCT 20 mL/d fish oil (EPA+DHA: NR) (n = 36) 20 mL/d olive oil (n = 36)/20 mL/d evening primrose oil (n-6) (n = 36) 2/Unclear III
Thien, 1993[20] England: 26-wk parallel RCT 3.2 g/d EPA + 2.2 g/d DHA (n = NR) Olive oil placebo (dose: NR) (n = NR) 4/Unclear III
CHILDREN
Hodge, 1998[17] Australia: 26-wk parallel RCT 0.72 g/d EPA 0.48 g/d DHA + ALA (dose: NR) via canola diet (n = NR) n-6: 1.8 g/d safflower oil + 1.8 g/d palm oil + 0.4 g/d olive oil + sunflower diet (dose: NR) (n = NR) 3/Unclear III
Nagakura, 2000[16] Japan: 10-mo parallel RCT 17.0–26.8 mg/kg/d EPA; 7.3–11.5 mg/kg/d DHA (300 mg/d fish oil) (n = 15) 300 mg/d olive oil placebo (n = 15) 4/Unclear III
AGE NOT REPORTED
Dry, 1991[24] France: 9-mo parallel RCT 1.0 g/d EPA+DHA (n = NR) "Placebo" (type & dose: NR) (n = NR) 2/Unclear X
  1. 1Proceeding from highest omega-3, or lowest omega-6/omega-3, fatty acid content of intervention; n-6 = omega-6 FAs; ALA = alpha linolenic acid; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; Length = intervention length; Design = research design; n = sample size; pts = study participants; NR = not reported; wk = week(s); mo = month; RCT = randomized controlled trial; Jadad total quality score = /5; Applicability I = greatest applicability to North American population of asthma patients; Applicability II = somewhat narrow applicability; Applicability III = very narrow applicability; Applicability X = insufficient data to determine applicability