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Table 2 Components of treatment protocol in study of massage for neck pain

From: Development of a taxonomy to describe massage treatments for musculoskeletal pain

1. Styles or techniques allowed with no restrictions
   1. Application of cold
   2. Application of heat
   3. Compression – pumping or static
   4. Craniosacral
   5. Friction or direct pressure
   6. Cross-fiber friction
   7. Gliding (effluerage) – Swedish
   8. Gliding – deep (effluerage, stripping) – clinical
   9. Holding
   10. Kneading (petrissage)
   11. Lymphatic drainage
   12. Percussion (tapotement)
   13. Rocking, jostling, shaking, vibration
   14. ROM – active or resistive (also active assisted and/or resisted stretching, MET, PNF – consisting of three types of resistive stretching: lengthening, contracting the agonist; lengthening the agonist, contracting the antagonist; and lengthening the agonist, contracting agonist and antagonist)
   15. ROM – passive (passive stretching, positional release)
   16. Skin rolling
   17. Stretching (manual)
   18. Traction
   19. Trigger point therapy
2. Principal treatment goals LIMITED by protocol (i.e., allowed only if represent less than 20% of an individual session)
   Energy Work (e.g., Reiki, Polarity, Therapeutic touch, Zero Balancing)
   Movement Education (Active Exercise Styles) (e.g., Alexander Technique, Feldenkrais Method, Aston Patterning)
3. Treatments proscribed by protocol
   Aromatherapy
   Asian bodywork (shiatsu or other meridian based massage)
   Dietary supplements
   Recipe techniques – although components of those may be acceptable