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Table 3 Herbal medicines with clinical evidence not included in this review

From: Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings

Herbal medicine Clinical evidence (or potential) for PCOS and associated oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism Reason for non-inclusion – insufficient pre-clinical evidence for mechanism of effects for whole herbal extract
Camellia sinensis (green tea) Hormone concentration in obese women with PCOS [71]. Isolated constituent (epigallocatechin gallate 1) examined [72]. No evidence found for effects for whole herbal extract in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism.
Mentha spicata (spearmint tea) Lowered testosterone in women with PCOS [73, 74]. No evidence for mechanism of effect found for PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism.
Ginkgo Biloba (ginkgo) Metabolic hormone management for type two diabetes [75]. No evidence for mechanism of effect in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism found.
Grifola frondosa (miatake mushroom) Ovulation rates in PCOS [76]. No evidence for mechanism of effect in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or PCOS revealed.
Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) Menstrual regulation [77, 78] and hormonal concentration [7880] in post-menopausal women. No mechanism of effect in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism found.
Pygeum africanum (pygeum) Anti-androgen effects in prostatic hypertrophy [81]. No evidence for mechanism of effect found in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism (in female cell cultures or animals).
Serrenoa repens (saw palmetto) Anti-androgen effects in chronic pelvic pain and prostatitis [8284]. No mechanism of effect in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism (in female cell cultures or animals).
Silybum marianum (St Mary’s thistle) Fatty liver disease in type two diabetes [85]. No mechanism of effect in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea or hyperandrogenism.
Stachys lavandulifolia (wood betony) Evidence for improved uterine bleeding (including oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea) in women with PCOS comparable with Medroxyprogesterone acetate [86]. No mechanism of effect studies found for whole herbal extract in PCOS and or associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism.
Urtica dioca (nettle root) Anti-androgen effects in women [87]. Anti-androgen effects through interaction with SHBG in prostate cells [8890]. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects [91] No evidence for effects of Urtica dioca in female cell cultures or animals.
  1. Other excluded studies investigated the herbal medicines included in this review examining conditions other than PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism. These included investigations into effectiveness for Vitex agnus-castus for pre-menstrual syndrome [9297] and mastalgia [98, 99], Cimicifuga racemosa for menopausal symptoms [100] and Glycyrrhiza spp with Paeonia lactiflora libido in males [101].