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Table 4 The antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity activities of DCM, MeOH and H 2 O extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants

From: Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum

Plant name Parts Extracts EC50(μg/ml) Selectivity index (SI)
    P. falciparum K1 MDBK cells  
Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes DCM 2.38 37.61 15.92
MeOH >15.70 NT ND
H2O >15.70 NT ND
Vernonia amygdalina Leaves DCM 3.36 157.69 47.00
MeOH 1.09 >300 >274.39
H2O 8.23 >600 >72.95
Alpinia galanga Rhizomes DCM 1.64 3.92 2.40
MeOH 8.06 87.95 10.92
H2O 1.84 >50 >27.16
Brucea javanica Leaves DCM 0.55 15.13 27.64
MeOH 5.27 87.95 16.70
H2O 1.29 1.90 1.48
Roots DCM 0.47 6.54 14.05
MeOH 0.58 6.95 12.06
H2O 4.49 9.59 2.14
Green seeds DCM >15.70 NT ND
MeOH 0.25 NT ND
H2O 1.47 NT ND
Black seeds DCM >15.70 NT ND
MeOH 1.96 7.70 3.92
H2O 5.40 24.24 4.49
Leea indica Leaves DCM >15.70 NT ND
MeOH >15.70 NT ND
H2O >15.70 NT ND
Cinnamomun iners Leaves DCM 1.95 199.15 102.58
MeOH 0.63 >400 >636.61
H2O 0.62 >100 >161.29
Vitex negundo Leaves DCM 1.10 25.04 22.80
MeOH 2.17 >50 >23.10
H2O >15.70 NT ND
Terminalia catappa Leaves DCM 5.29 >50 >9.45a
MeOH 5.19 >50 >9.63a
H2O 4.28 25.02 5.84
Morinda elliptica Leaves DCM 9.08 >50 >5.51a
MeOH 7.76 >50 >6.45a
H2O 0.50 31.05 62.10
Annona muricata Leaves DCM 0.61 40.48 66.47
MeOH 0.26 >100 >387.60
H2O 0.27 >200 >756.14
Curcuma mangga Rhizomes DCM 6.59 36.66 4.09
MeOH 1.81 >50 15.44
H2O 2.30 31.85 11.27
Elephantopus scaber Leaves DCM 3.71 8.89 11.27
MeOH 0.27 42.75 2.39
H2O >15.70 NT ND
Roots DCM >15.70 NT ND
MeOH >15.70 NT ND
H2O >15.70 NT ND
Curcuma aeruginosa Rhizomes DCM 5.40 >50 >9.26a
MeOH 5.32 >50 >9.39a
H2O 4.78 >50 >10.46
Curcuma phaeocaulis Rhizomes DCM 5.00 11.04 2.21
   MeOH 9.24 >50 >5.41a
   H2O 10.45 NT ND
  1. Data are presented as mean of at least two independent experiments performed in duplicate assays. DCM, dichloromethane; MeOH, methanol; H2O, water extracts. No activity at the highest tested concentration denoted as EC50 > 15.70 μg/ml. No toxicity at the highest tested concentration denoted as EC50 > 50.00, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 μg/ml. SI: EC50 MDBK cell lines / EC50 Plasmodium . aThe SI is not conclusive because the EC50 value is higher than 50 μg/ml which might resulted in higher SI value. NT, not tested, ND, not determined.
  2. In vitro P. falciparum HRP2 and MTT assays were conducted for each plant extracts on CQ resistant P. falciparum and MDBK cell line, respectively. The EC50 value for each plants extracts were determined from the dose-response curves produced by using the HN-nonLin software (malaria.farch.net). The ratio of MDBK cell line EC50 and P. falciparum EC50 of each extract give the SI index or the level of toxic effects. Twenty three extracts from 11 plant species showed promising antiplasmodial activity (EC50 ≤ 10 μg/ml) with no toxic effect (SI ≥ 10).