Inhibitory effects of HCS on the viability and invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. (A) Effects of HCS on proliferation of pancreatic cancer cell lines (SW1990, BxPC3 and CF-PAC1) after 48 hours. (B) Effects of HCS on proliferation of SW1990 cells after 36, 48 and 72 hours. (C) IC50=0.545mg/ml was calculated in the time-dose-curve at 48 hour for SW1990. (D) After 24 hours of incubation, cells that migrated to the lower side of the chamber were stained with 1% crystal violet and counted under a microscope. (E) The invasive capability of SW1990 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. (F-I) 24 hours after HCS (50μg/ml) treatment, the mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reduced by 32.8±2.6% and 37.4±2.8% respectively (F,G); the protein expression of decreased by 33.7±2.5% and 43.8±3.7% respectively (H,I), as compared to the Control (P<0.05). Data are from three independent experiments. In the bar graph, *: P<0.05 indicates the difference significant statistically, compared to controls; “ns” presents no significant difference.