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Figure 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 4

From: Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites

Figure 4

Effect of VE on levels of 5-HT (A), its metabolite (5-HIAA, B) and its ratio (5-HIAA/5-HT, C) in the control, PS-V group, PS-VE group, PCS-V group, and PCS-VE group ( n = 7 per group; a P < 0.05, indicating a significant difference compared to the control group; b P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PS-VE or PCS-V vs. PCS-VE group; c P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PCS-V or PS-VE vs. PCS-VE group). Error bars indicate SEM.

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