Effect of VE on levels of NE (A) and its metabolite (MHPG-SO
, B) and their ratio (MHPG-SO
/NE, C) in the control, PS-V group, PS-VE group, PCS-V group, and PCS-VE group ( n = 7 per group; a
P < 0.05, indicating a significant difference compared to the control group; b
P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PS-VE or PCS-V vs. PCS-VE group; c
P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PCS-V or PS-VE vs. PCS-VE group). Error bars indicate SEM.