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Figure 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 3

From: Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites

Figure 3

Effect of VE on levels of NE (A) and its metabolite (MHPG-SO 4 , B) and their ratio (MHPG-SO 4 /NE, C) in the control, PS-V group, PS-VE group, PCS-V group, and PCS-VE group ( n = 7 per group; a P < 0.05, indicating a significant difference compared to the control group; b P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PS-VE or PCS-V vs. PCS-VE group; c P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PCS-V or PS-VE vs. PCS-VE group). Error bars indicate SEM.

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