- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells
© Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 25 August 2014
- Accepted: 13 November 2014
- Published: 24 November 2014
Panax ginseng is a famous traditional medicine in Korea for its beneficial effect on obesity, cardiac and liver associated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolite in Panax ginseng (P. ginseng, Aralicaceae) berries depending on the ripen stages and evaluate its potential inhibition on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells.
Different ripening stage samples of P. ginseng berry were analyzed through global metabolite profiling by NMR spectroscopy. Lipid accumulation in the cells was analyzed by Oil Red O staining.
The PLS-DA clearly distinguished P. ginseng berry extract (PGBE) according to the partial ripe (PR), ripe(R) and fully ripe (FR) stage. Lipid accumulation of PGBE was examined by measuring triglyceride content and Oil-Red O staining. These results suggested that the FR stage of PGBE decrease in lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation and the amount of threonine, asparagine, fumarate, tyraine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine increased with longer ripening of ginseng berries.
Metabolite profiling of P. ginseng was identified by 1H NMR spectra. P. ginseng extract efficiently inhibits adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes concluded that the P. ginseng has the antiobesity properties.
- Panax ginseng berry
- Metabolite profiling
Obesity is a risk factor for major metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and hypertension and multifactorial syndrome in human [1, 2]. It is an abnormal condition in which the lipids are accumulated in adipose tissues and various kinds of adipokine . Panax ginseng is a perennial plant that has been used as a tonic and for the treatment of various diseases [4–8]. P. ginseng root is normally harvested between the fourth and sixth year of growth. The multiple active constituents such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols and fatty acids are identified in the P. ginseng root . On the other hand, P. ginseng berry easily be harvested several times after the third year of growth . Quan et al.  reported that ginsenoside Re (groups, namely protopanaxatriol-type saponin from ginseng) lowers blood glucose and lipid in high-fat diet fed mice. However, effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells on PGBE have not yet been reported. The chemical composition and biological activities of the P. ginseng berry may differ according to the maturation stage. We have looked for lipid accumulation in adipocyte inhibitory plants using PGBE as an in vitro assay system. During the course of screening, the water extract of P. ginseng berry was significantly inhibited this activity. The metabolic profiling can be useful for quantifying a group of related compounds. There are few previous studies about profiling metabolic compounds of ginseng by using NMR [12, 13]. However, no study reported in differences of the metabolic compounds among different maturation stages in ginseng fruits. The aim of this study was to classify the ginseng berry (Panax ginseng) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and evaluates its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells.
Three steps berries of five year-old P. ginseng were obtained from a local farm in Eumseong province (GPS N 36° 56’ 34”, E 127° 45’ 14”), Republic of Korea. The collected plants were identified by the botanist in Ginseng Research Institiute, Daegu, South Korea. The collected samples were stored in the Medicinal Crop Research Institute, NIHHS, RDA, with voucher number MCRI-241. Three periods were June 8th, 2012 (12ea), June 18th, 2012 (10ea), and July 16th, 2012 (8ea), respectively. The collected P. ginsengs were classified into three major categories according to their stage of maturation: ripe (R), and fully ripe (FR). The PGBE was freeze-dried and then stored at -70°C before analysis. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Department of Medicinal Crop Research, Rural Development Administration in Republic of Korea (RDAPGBE 201201–201230).
Sample preparation for 1H NMR
PGBE were extracted by adding 1 mL of 100% D2O to 30 mg of powdered P. ginseng berries in a micro tube, vortexed for 1 min, and sonicated for 5 min. The materials were then centrifuged at 14000 × rpm for 10 min. KH2PO4 was added as a buffering agent to 100 mL of D2O containing 0.05% 3-(trimethylsilyl)-propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid, sodium salt (TSP) as an internal standard for D2O. The pH of the D2O used for NMR measurements was adjusted to 6.0 by careful addition of 1 N NaOD and then transferred to a 5 mm NMR tube.
Data reduction and processing
MestReNova (version 6.0.4) was used to obtain the NMR spectra, which were all automatically binning using Chenomx (version 5.1) software. The spectral 1H NMR region from δ = 0.56 to δ = 10.00 was segmented into regions with widths of 0.04 ppm, giving 232 integrated regions in each NMR spectrum.
3 T3-L1 preadipocyte purchased from ATCC were cultured in 24 well plate at a density of 3×104 cells/well. In DMEM containing 10% FBS, 2 mM glutamine, 20 mM Hepes, 50U/ml penicillin, and 50 mg/ml streptomycin sulfate. After 100% confluency, cells were cultured with differentiation medium (DMEM with 10% FBS, 0.5 mM IBMX, 2 mM DEX and 1.7 mM INS). After 48 h of stimulation, cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS with/without PGBE and changed every two days up to 8 days.
Oil Red O staining
Lipid accumulation of PGBE was examined by measuring triglyceride content using Oil-Red O staining. For Oil Red O staining, cells were washed gently with PBS twice, fixed with 3.7% fresh formaldehyde in PBS for 1 h at room temperature and stained with filtered Oil Red O solution (60% isopropanol and 40% water) for at least 1 h. After staining of lipid droplets with Red, the Oil Red O staining solution was removed and the plates were rinsed with water and dried. Images were collected on an Olympus microscope (Tokyo, Japan). Finally, the dye retained in the cells was eluted with isopropanol and quantified by measuring the optical absorbance at 500 nm.
Multivariate statistics analysis
Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using mean Pareto-scaled data obtained from aqueous solvent system. Then, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed, which can yield a clearer differentiation of each class and enable a less complicated investigation of marker compounds
Unless otherwise specified, all data are expressed as the mean ± standard error (SE) from triplicate experiments. One-way ANOVA (Scheffe test or student t test) was used for multiple comparisons using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program (version 16.0) (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Assignment of 1 H NMR spectral peaks obtained from P. ginseng berry extract analyzed by using D 2 O solvent. S: singlet, d: doublet, t: triplet, m: multiplet, dd: doublet of doublet
Chemical shift (δ), Peak multiplicity, J value (Hz)
0.95 (d, J = 6.0)
0.99 (d, J = 5.4), 1.03 (d, J = 7.1)
1.32(d, J = 6.9)
1.47 (d, J = 7.3)
2.10-2.16(m), 2.29 (t, J = 7.4, 2.48-2.48 (m)
2.10-2.16 (m), 2.40-2.48 (m)
2.85 (dd, J = 16.9, 7.7), 2.94 (dd, J = 16.9, 4.2)
3.00 (t, J = 7.2)
3.21-3.25(m), 3.36-3.43 (m), 3.43-3.54 (m), 3.67-3.82 (m), 3.89 (dd, J = 11.9, 1.6), 4.63 (d, J = 8.0), 5.22 (d, J = 3.8)
6.89 (d, J = 8.5), 7.18 (d, J = 8.3)
6.89 (d, J = 8.5), 7.18 (d, J = 8.3)
7.31 (d, J = 7.8), 7.36 (t, J = 7.3), 7.41 (t, J = 7.6)
In previous, many studies have reported the anti-obesity effects in various medicinal plants, such as Nigella sativa , Camellia sinensis , Hibiscus sabdariffa , Psyllium fibre , and Lycium barbarum . Dey et al.  demonstrated the anti-obesity effect in Asian ginseng berry extract, and Attele et al.  also showed the anti-hyperglycemic effect in ginsenoside Re. According to Kim et al. , the group of people whom the black soybean peptide had been taken showed the decreased body mass and fat. The scientific study shows that natural products contain a large variety of components that possess lipid inhibition activity. Especially, a variety of herbs from plants have been used as traditional natural medicines for cure many kinds of diseases or restore to health. In particular, various oriental medicinal herbs are reported to have biological activity [24, 25].
In this study, it was confirmed that the amount of phenylalanine is higher in FR stage of P. ginseng berries, thus expecting to lower the obesity. Further in vivo research and clinical trials are still need to clarify the efficacy, safety, and precise molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of PGBE.
In conclusion, this is the first study regarding metabolic profiling of PGBE using D2O solvent. Moreover, multiparameter pattern recognition analysis established 1H NMR spectra of PGBE. And PGBE efficiently inhibits adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes as indicated by significant reduction lipid accumulation. It is predicted that P. ginseng berry extract may apparently inhibit the adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation in the cells through the activation of various adipogenic regulatory genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP-α). Further the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of P. ginseng berry extract has to be studied in the future.
This work was performed with the support of the Agenda Program (PJ008568), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
- Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W: New approaches in the pharmacological treatment of obesity. Eur J Nutr. 1999, 38: 1-13. 10.1007/s003940050040.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Monteiro R, Azevedo I: Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Medi Infla. 2010, 2010: 1-10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zalilah MS, Khor GL, Mirnalini K, Norimah AK, Ang M: Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents. Sin Med J. 2006, 47: 491.498-Google Scholar
- Block KI, Mead MN: Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: A review. Int Can Ther. 2003, 2: 247-267. 10.1177/1534735403256419.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nah SY, Kim DH, Rhim H: Ginsenosides: Are any of them candidates for drugs acting on the central nervous system?. CNS Drug Rev. 2007, 13: 381-404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xie JT, Mchendale S, Yuan CS: Ginseng and diabetes. Am J Chin Med. 2005, 33: 397-404. 10.1142/S0192415X05003004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yun TK: Experimental and epidemiologic evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean red ginseng and identification of active compounds. Mut Res. 2003, 523–524: 63-74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim S, Kim T, Ahn K, Park WK, Nah SY, Rhim H: Ginsenoside Rg3 antagonizes NMDA receptors through a glycine modulatory site in rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophy Res Comm. 2004, 323: 416-424. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee Florence C: Facts About Ginseng: The Elixir of Life. 1992, In Elizabeth, NJ, USA: Hollym International CorporationGoogle Scholar
- Kim YK, Yoo DS, Xu H, Park NI, Kim HH, Choi JE, Park SU: Ginsenoside content of berries and roots of three typical Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) cultivars. Nat Pro Comm. 2009, 4: 903-906.Google Scholar
- Quan HY, Yuan HD, Jung MS, Ko SK, Park YG, Chung SH: Ginsenoside Re lowers blood glucose and lipid levels via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet fed mice. Int J Mol Med. 2012, 29: 73-80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang SY, Kim HK, Lefeber AWM, Erkelens C, Angelova N, Choi YH, Verpoorte R: Application of two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quality control of ginseng commercial products. Planta Med. 2006, 72: 364-369. 10.1055/s-2005-916240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee EJ, Shaykhutdinov R, Weljie AM, Vogel HJ, Facchini PJ, Park SU, Kim YK, Yang TJ: Quality assessment of ginseng by 1H NMR metabolite fingerprinting and profiling analysis. J Agri Food Chem. 2009, 57: 7513-7522. 10.1021/jf901675y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Green H, Kehinde O: An established preadipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. II. Factors affecting the adipose conversion. Cell. 1975, 5: 19-27. 10.1016/0092-8674(75)90087-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH: Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1830, 2013: 4813-4819.Google Scholar
- Datau EA, Wardhana Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JAF: Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Acta Med Indones. 2010, 42: 130-134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Basu A, Du M, Sanchez K, Leyva MJ, Betts NM, Blevins S, Wu M, Aston CE, Lyons TJ: Green tea minimally affects biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr. 2011, 27: 206-213. 10.1016/j.nut.2010.01.015.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gurrola-Díaz CM, García-López PM, Sánchez-Enríquez S, Troyo-Sanromán R, Andrade-González I, Gómez-Leyva JF: Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract powder and preventive treatment [diet] on the lipid profiles of patients with metabolic syndrome [MeSy]. Phytomed. 2010, 17: 500-505. 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pal S, Khossousi A, Binns C, Dhaliwal S, Ellis V: The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals. Bri J Nutr. 2011, 105: 90-100. 10.1017/S0007114510003132.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amagase H, Nance DM: Lycium barbarum increases caloric expenditure and decreases waist circumference in healthy overweight men and women: pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011, 30: 304-309. 10.1080/07315724.2011.10719973.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dey L, Zhang L, Yuan CS: Letter to the editor: anti-diabetic and anti-obese effects of ginseng berry extract: comparison between intraperitoneal and oral administrations. Am J Chin Med. 2002, 30: 645-647. 10.1142/S0192415X02000648.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, Wu JA, Zhang L, Dey L, Pugh W, Rue PA, Polonsky KS, Yuan CS: Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Diabetes. 2002, 51: 1851-1858. 10.2337/diabetes.51.6.1851.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim MJ, Yang HJ, Kim JH, Ahn CW, Lee JH, Kim KS, Kwon DY: Obesity-related metabolomic analysis of human subjects in black soybean peptide intervention study by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Obesity. 2013, 2013: 1-11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim YS, Lee YM, Kim H, Kim J, Jang DK, Kim JH, Kim JS: Anti-obesity effect of morus bombycis root extract: anti-lipase activity and lipolytic effect. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 130: 621-624. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.053.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yun JW: Possible anti-obesity therapeutics from nature-a review. Phytochem. 2010, 71: 1625-1641. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.07.011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/14/455/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.