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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis results for significant characteristics between users and non-users of CAM and prayer-for-health

From: Prayer-for-health and complementary alternative medicine use among Malaysian breast cancer patients during chemotherapy

  Multivariate logistic regression model of
  CAM users vs. non-CAM users† (Included prayer-for-health) CAM users vs. non-CAM users‡ (Excluded prayer-for-health) Users vs. non-users§ (Prayer-for-health only)
Characteristics OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Ethnicity    
 Malay - - Reference
 Chinese 0.31 (0.20–0.49)**
 Indian 0.81 (0.46–1.42)
 Others 0.57 (0.15–2.18)
Education level    
 Primary school/lower Reference Reference -
 Secondary school 1.44 (0.90–2.24) 1.28 (0.82–1.99)
 Tertiary 2.33 (1.22–4.47)* 2.11 (1.15–3.89)*
Household income/month    
 ≤RM 3000 (≈944 USD) Reference Reference Reference
 >RM 3000 (≈944 USD) 3.41 (1.92–6.03)** 2.32 (1.40–3.84)** 2.55 (1.66–3.93)**
Staging of disease    
 Early Reference Reference Reference
 Advanced 1.86 (1.23–2.82)** 1.75 (1.18–2.59)* 2.10 (1.39–3.13)**
Chemotherapy adherence    
 Postponed Reference Reference -
 On schedule 0.18 (0.06–0.51)** 0.24 (0.10–0.58)**
  1. †Logistic regression model: Hosmer and Lemeshow test, χ2 = 3.47 (5), p = 0.63.
  2. ‡Logistic regression model: Hosmer and Lemeshow test, χ2 = 8.46 (6), p = 0.21.
  3. §Logistic regression model: Hosmer and Lemeshow test, χ2 = 11.43 (6), p = 0.08.
  4. **p < 0.001.
  5. *p < 0.05.