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Table 2 Minimum inhibitory and cidal concentrations (μg/ml) of the extract, fractions and compounds from the stem of P pinnata against bacteria and fungi

From: Antimicrobial steroidal saponin and oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Paullinia pinnata

Microorganism      Test substance
Extractb PEf EAf ARf 4 5 6 7 RD
Bacteria           
S. aureus MIC 781 1562 195 390 25 1.562 6.25 3.125 0.781
  MBC 781 3125 390 1562 100 1.562 6.25 6.25 3.125
P. aeruginosa MIC 781 781 390 781 100 3.125 50 6.25 0.781
  MBC 1562 3125 781 1562 / 6.25 100 12.5 1.562
K. pneumonia MIC 781 781 390 781 25 6.25 12.5 6.25 6.25
  MBC 781 3125 781 1562 25 6.25 12.5 6.25 6.25
E. coli MIC 24 781 97 195 25 0.781 3.125 3.125 0.781
  MBC 390 781 97 195 25 0.781 6.25 6.25 0.781
E. faecalis MIC 390 3125 781 1562 / 6.25 12.5 25 6.25
  MBC 3125 6250 1562 1562 / 6.25 12.5 100 6.25
E. aeroginese MIC 390 390 97 195 25 0.781 6.25 12.5 1.562
  MBC 781 781 195 390 50 1.562 12.5 25 1.562
P. smartii MIC 97 390 48.8 390 6.25 0.781 3.125 1.562 0.781
  MBC 195 1562 195 781 12.5 0. 781 6.25 3.125 0.781
Yeasts           
C. albicans MIC / 1562 781 3125 / / 3.125 3.125 3.125
  MFC / 3125 781 3125 / / 6.25 6.25 3.125
C. guiliermondii MIC 12500 1562 195 3125 / / 3.125 1.5625 6.25
  MFC 12500 6250 195 6250 / / 12.5 1.5625 12.5
C. neoformans MIC 3125 3125 195 3125 / / 3.125 1.5625 1.562
  MFC 6250 3125 390 3125 / / 12.5 6.25 3.125
C. luciteniae MIC 3125 1562 97.7 781 / / 3.125 3.125 3.125
  MFC 6250 1562 195 1562 / / 3.125 6.25 6.25
C. parapsilosis MIC 6250 1562 390 1562 / / 6.25 6.25 3.125
  MFC 12500 3125 390 1562 / / 25 12.5 3.125
Dermatophytes           
T. equinum MIC 12500 390 390 3125 50 50 25 50 6.25
  MFC / 1562 390 3125 100 100 25 50 12.5
M. audouinii MIC 12500 781 390 3125 25 / 6.25 12.5 6.25
  MFC / 1562 781 / 25 / 12.5 25 6.25
T. mentagrophytes MIC 12500 390 390 781 25 50 25 50 3.125
  MFC / 390 781 1562 50 / 25 50 6.25
M. gypseum MIC 12500 390 195 781 12.5 25 6.25 25 6.25
  MFC 12500 1562 195 781 50 25 25 25 12.5
E. flocosum MIC 12500 390 195 781 25 / 12.5 50 3.125
  MFC 12500 781 390 3125 25 / 25 100 6.25
  1. Extractb: stem extract; PEf: Petroleum ether fraction; EAf: ethylacetate fraction; ARf; aqueous residue fraction; RD: reference drug (Gentamycin, Nystatine and Griseofulvin for bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes respectively); /: not active (at 12500 μg/ml for extract and fractions, and 100 μg/ml for compounds).