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Table 1 Minimum inhibitory and cidal concentrations (μg/ml) of the extract, fractions and compounds from the leaves of P. pinnata against bacteria and fungi

From: Antimicrobial steroidal saponin and oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Paullinia pinnata

Microorganism Extracta Hf Af MRf 1 2 3 RD
Bacteria          
S. aureus MIC 390 97 195 48 50 / / 0.781
  MBC 390 390 390 97 / / / 3.125
P. aeruginosa MIC 390 195 781 781 6.25 / 100 0.781
  MBC 1562 781 1562 1562 50 / 100 1.562
K. pneumonia MIC 195 390 97 781 12.5 / 50 6.25
  MBC 390 1562 781 1562 100 / 100 6.25
E. coli MIC 48 24 12 12 0.781 100 50 0.781
  MBC 195 97 48 24 12.5 / 50 0.781
E. faecalis MIC 195 390 390 1562 12.5 / / 6.25
  MBC 195 781 1562 1562 50 / / 6.25
E. aeroginese MIC 97 195 24 48.8 50 25 50 1.562
  MBC 390 390 97 195 / 100 50 1.562
P. smartii MIC 48 48 97 12 6.25 100 50 0.781
  MBC 195 390 390 48 100 / 50 0.781
Yeasts          
C. albicans MIC 3125 1562 3125 / / / / 3.125
  MFC 12500 6250 6250 / / / / 3.125
C. guiliermondii MIC 3125 781 781 3125 / / / 6.25
  MFC 12500 6250 6250 / / / / 12.5
C. neoformans MIC 1562 195 97 3125 / / / 1.562
  MFC 6250 390 390 / / / / 3.125
C. luciteniae MIC 3125 195 195 3125 / / / 3.125
  MFC 12500 390 781 / / / / 6.25
C. parapsilosis MIC 6250 781 781 / / / / 3.125
  MFC 12500 6250 6250 / / / / 3.125
Dermatophytes          
T. equinum MIC 12500 390 390 / / / / 6.25
  MFC / 1562 3125 / / / / 12.5
M. audouinii MIC 6250 390 781 / / / / 6.25
  MFC 12500 1562 3125 / / / / 6.25
T. mentagrophytes MIC / 781 781 / / / / 3.125
  MFC / 3125 3125 / / / / 6.25
M. gypseum MIC 12500 390 781 / / / / 6.25
  MFC / 1562 3125 / / / / 12.5
E. flocosum MIC 12500 390 781 / / / / 3.125
  MFC / 1562 3125 / / / / 6.25
  1. Extracta: leaf extract; Hf: Hexane fraction; Af: Acetone fraction; MRf; Methanol residue fraction; RD: reference drug (Gentamycin, Nystatine and Griseofulvin for bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes respectively); /: not active (at 12500 μg/ml for extract and fractions, and 100 μg/ml for compounds).