Effect of H. cordata fractions on cell viability and the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. (A) Cells were treated with HCE or H. cordata fractions (100 μg/mL) plus LPS (1 μg/mL) or LPS alone for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by using CCK-8 assay. (B-E) Cells were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) of HCE-EA plus LPS (1 μg/mL) or LPS alone for 20 h. The production of (B) NO was measured by using the Griess reagent, and the production of (C) PGE2, (D) TNF-α, and (E) IL-6 was measured by using an ELISA kit. Values represent the mean ± the standard deviation (SD) (n = 3 independent experiments. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. LPS alone (control)).