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Table 1 Dietary intakes, body composition, organ wet weights and plasma biochemistry analysis in C, CRP, H and HRP diet-fed rats

From: Effects of red pitaya juice supplementation on cardiovascular and hepatic changes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats

Variable C CRP H HRP P-value
Diet Treatment Interaction
Food intake, g/d (n = 7-8) 36.3 ± 0.9b 40.4 ± 0.7a 27.3 ± 1.3c 27.7 ± 2.6c <0.0001 0.0375 0.07
Water intake, ml/d (n = 7-8) 29.6 ± 2.6 30.9 ± 1.7 26.5 ± 2.3 29.6 ± 5.0 0.06 0.3 0.41
Energy intake, kJ/d (n = 8) 405.5 ± 10.2d 512.7 ± 8.3c 569.2 ± 28.7b 655.2 ± 28.7a 0.8041 <0.0001 <0.0001
Body weight gain (8–16 weeks),% (n = 8) 7.1 ± 1.1bc 11.6 ± 2.6b 19.1 ± 1.4a 19.7 ± 1.5a <0.0001 0.12 0.19
Total body fat mass, g (n = 8) 77.5 ± 5.8b 110.6 ± 10.4b 210.8 ± 27.6a 230.4 ± 23.1a <0.0001 0.23 0.85
Total body lean mass, g (n = 8) 296.9 ± 10.6 305.2 ± 3.0 296.8 ± 15.4 286.2 ± 16.0 0.67 0.42 0.31
Abdominal circumference, cm (n = 8) 18.9 ± 0.2d 20.2 ± 0.3c 22.1 ± 0.4b 24.7 ± 0.5a <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0403
Tissue wet weights, mg/mm tibial length (n = 8)        
Liver (n = 7-8) 248.8 ± 12.0b 258.0 ± 16.4b 332.5 ± 1.0a 363.2 ± 8.6a <0.0001 0.18 0.41
Kidneys (n = 7-8) 47.92 ± 1.3b 54.62 ± 1.7b 57.31 ± 3.1a 58.62 ± 1.5a 0.0299 0.0856 < 0.0001
Spleen (n = 7-8) 17.27 ± 1.1 19.53 ± 1.2 19.1 ± 0.3 16.11 ± 1.6 0.0042 0.9573 0.1704
Plasma biochemistry analysis        
Urea (mmol/L) (n = 7-8) 2.74 ± 0.62 2.94 ± 0.31 2.90 ± 0.33 2.11 ± 0.12 0.1463 0.6032 0.5296
uric acid (μmol/L) (n = 7-8) 32.6 ± 5.36b 45.4 ± 1.37a 26.6 ± 2.2bc 16.4 ± 2.36c 0.0014 0.0793 < 0.0001
Glucose, mmol/L (n = 5-8) 11.2 ± 0.61ab 12.6 ± 1.19a 12.4 ± 0.45ab 9.7 ± 0.44b 0.0118 0.4315 0.6681
  1. Each value is a mean ± S.E.M. Number of repetitive experiments indicated within parenthesis. Means within a row with unlike superscripts letters a, b, c, d differ significantly (p < 0.05). C, corn starch diet; CRP, corn starch + red pitaya juice; H, high fat diet; HRP, high fat diet + red pitaya juice.