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Table 5 Obstetric and neonatal outcomes

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a longitudinal randomised controlled trial

  MA EA SC MA vs. SC1 EA vs. SC1 EA vs. MA1
  n = 83 n = 87 n = 83    
Obstetric outcomes       
Mode of delivery (%)     OR (CI) 2 OR (CI) 2 OR (CI) 3
 Normal vaginal 74.7 74.7 74.7 0.97 (0.46-2.02) 0.94 (0.46-1.91) 0.97 (0.48-1.99)
 Instrumental vaginal 16.9 19.5 12.0 1.52 (0.61-3.81) 1.93 (0.81-4.63) 1.27 (0.56-2.87)
 Caesarean 8.4 5.7 13.3 0.64 (0.23-1.79) 0.41 (0.14-1.26) 0.65 (0.20-2.14)
Estimated blood loss >1000 ml (%) 4.8 2.3 12.2 0.36 (0.10-1.23) 0.14 (0.30-0.69) 0.40 (0.70-2.27)
Augmentation of labour (%) 63.9 54.7 60.5 1.19 (0.62-2.3) 0.81 (0.43-1.51) 0.68 (0.36-1.28)
Perineal trauma, third and fourth degree (%) 5.3 4.9 5.6 1.19 (0.28-5.16) 0.92 (0.21-3.92) 0.77 (0.18-3.29)
     HR (CI 2 ) HR (CI) 2 HR (CI)
Duration of labour (minutes) mean(SD) 619 (378) 500 (319) 615 (398) 1.03 (0.75-1.41) 1.44 (1.06-1.97) 1.41 (1.03-1.91)
Infant     OR (CI) 2 OR(CI) 2 OR (CI) 3
Transferred to neonatal clinic (%) 3.6 11.5 4.9 0.91 (0.19-4.31) 2.82 (0.82-9.68) 3.11 (0.81-11.98)
     p p p
Apgar score less than 7 at 5 min (%) 1.2 2.3 0 1.00 0.68 0.69
Cord arterial pH mean (SD) 7.3 (0.7) 7.2 (0.7) 7.3 (0.8) 1.00 0.52 0.45
Cord venous pH mean (SD) 7.3 (0.7) 7.3 (0.8) 7.3 (0.6) 1.00 0.68 0.69
  1. 1Analysed by appropriate method (see Methods) and adjusted for age and education. SC = Standard Care MA = manual acupuncture EA = Electro-acupuncture OR = Odds Ratio CI = 95% Confidence interval SD = Standard Deviation HR = Hazard Ratio 2SC is reference 3MA is reference.