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Table 4 Obstetric pain relief and postpartum assessments of the experience of labour pain (%)

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a longitudinal randomised controlled trial

  MA EA SC MA vs. SC1 EA vs. SC1 EA vs. MA1
  n = 83 n = 87 n = 83 OR (CI) 2 OR (CI) 2 OR (CI) 3
Pain relief       
Nitrous oxide 95.1 95.4 93.8 1.89 (0.43-8.37) 1.52 (0.39-5.96) 0.80 (0.17-3.75)
Sterile water injections 12.2 4.7 10.0 1.15 (0.42-3.14) 0.40 (0.11-1.40) 0.35 (0.10-1.17)
TENS 14.5 12.6 48.1 0.17 (0.77-0.37) 0.16 (0.73-0.34) 0.94 (0.38-2.33)
Morphine 9.6 1.1 4.8 2.3 (0.64-8.0) 0.23 (0.25-2.1) 0.10 (0.01-0.85)
Epidural analgesia 61.4 46.0 69.9 0.62 (0.32-1.20) 0.35 (0.19-0.67) 0.57 (0.31-1.06)
Women’s assessments postpartum       
Pain worse than expected4 51.9 54.4 65.8 0.54 (0.27-1.05) 0.63 (0.33-1.23) 1.19 (0.62-2.26)
Sufficient pain relief4 76.6 81.0 73.7 1.31 (0.61-2.84) 1.68 (0.77-3.68) 1.28 (0.58-2.84)
Will choose the same treatment again4 60.9 68.0     1.14 (0.55-2.36)
Acupuncture effective for reducing pain5 44.4 67.1     2.44 (1.23-4.82)
Acupuncture effective for relaxation5 58.6 72.7     1.72 (0.84-3.52)
  1. 1Analysed by appropriate method (see Methods) and adjusted for age and education. SC = Standard Care MA = manual acupuncture EA = Electro-acupuncture OR = Odds Ratio CI = 95% Confidence interval SD = Standard Deviation TENS = Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation 2SC is reference 3MA is reference 4Day after partus 5Immediately after partus.