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Table 1 Characteristics of women allocated to manual acupuncture (MA), electro-acupuncture (EA), and standard care (SC), and their infants

From: Acupuncture with manual and electrical stimulation for labour pain: a longitudinal randomised controlled trial

  Randomised Analysed
Characteristics MA (n = 99) EA (n = 103) SC (n = 101) MA (n = 83) EA (n = 87) SC (n = 83)
Socio-demographic background       
 Age (years), mean (SD) 26.5 (4.7) 27.7 (4.6) 28.1 (5.1) 26.5 (4.8) 27.6 (4.6) 28.3 (5.0)
 Born in Sweden (%) 91.3 89.8 90.7 91.3 89.7 90.2
 Higher education (%) 35.0 45.5 53.5 35 44.8 54.2
 Solo parent (%) 15.2 19.4 15.8 14.5 18.4 15.7
 Smoking 3 months prior to admission to antenatal clinic (%) 26.7 23.1 20.5 23.0 19.5 19.7
 Body mass index in early pregnancy, mean (SD) 24.7 (4.8) 24.2 (3.9) 25.1 (4.1) 24.4 (5.0) 24.2 (3.8) 24.9 (4.1)
Previous acupuncture experience       
 Yes, for pain (%) 17.1 23.8 14.5 17.1 24.1 13.7
 Yes, for other than pain (%) 17.1 15.3 13.3 17.1 15.5 12.5
Status at admission to labour ward       
 Gestational week, mean 40 + 0 40 + 0 40 + 0 40 + 0 39 + 6 40 + 0
 Undiagnosed breach presentation (%) 0 0 1 0 0 1.2
 Cervix dilatation (cm), mean (SD) 3.6 (1.6) 4.0 (1.7) 3.6 (1.7) 3.6 (1.5) 4 (1.6) 3.6 (1.8)
 Rupture of membranes (%) 30.1 28.4 33.3 30.5 28.7 33.3
 Pharmacological pain relief prior to recruitment, except for paracetamol (%) 4.0 2.9 11.9 2.4 3.4 8.4
 Treatment with oxytocin at the time point of allocation (%) 1.0 1.9 1.0 1.2 2.3 0
Infant       
 Head circumference (cm), mean (SD) 35.0 (1.4) 35.0 (1.3) 35.0 (1.3) 34.9 (1.4) 34.9 (1.3) 35 (1.3)
 Birth weight (grams), mean (SD) 3509 (408) 3593 (451) 3656 (488) 3508 (410) 3590 (456) 3654 (493)
  1. MA = Manual acupuncture. EA = Electro-acupuncture. SC = Standard care, SD = Standard deviation.