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Table 2 Antimicrobial activities (in terms of inhibition zone in mm) where bacterial growth was inhibited by plant extracts

From: Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial study of some selected medicinal plants used in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) as a potential source to cure infectious diseases

Plant species Fractions Antimicrobial activity against
   B. subtilis K. pneumonia S. aureus E. coli S. typhi S. dysentriae S. cerevisiae
Calotropis procera Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 15.0 ± 0.25 0 14.1 ± 0.25 125 ± 0.20 13.6 ± 0.25 15.2 ± 0.20 14.4 ± 0.264
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.152
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.251
Artemisia maritima Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 12.2 ± 0.25 12.4 ± 0.37 15.1 ± 0.36 12.8 ± 0.25 13.70 ± 0.41 14.3 ± 0.30 15.6 ± 0.40
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Neolitsea chinensis Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - 19.36 ± 0.25 17.7 ± 0.26 - 14.86 ± 0.11
Ethanol 20.1 ± 0.25 - 18.6 ± 0.23 20.0 ± 0.25 19.5 ± 0.20 19.3 ± 0.05 18.7 ± 0.15
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Azadirachta indica Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 22.5 ± 0.40 - 17.5 ± 0.30 23.8 ± 0.20 23.9 ± 0.05 19.6 ± 0.15 21.8 ± 0.11
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Cedrela toona Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 15.4 ± 0.11 - 13.4 ± 0.25 14.5 ± 0.25 - - 15.2 ± 0.36
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Melia azedarach Aqueous - - 13.7 ± 0.40 - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol - - - - - - -
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Eucalyptus globulus Aqueous 24.1 ± 0.15 28.4 ± 0.30 23.8 ± 0.15 20.0 ± 0.20 18.8 ± 0.17 21.5 ± 0.25 27.5 ± 0.15
n-Hexane 14.2 ± 0.32 14.5 ± 0.61 12.7 ± 0.25 14.7 ± 0.30 13.2 ± 0.35 15.7 ± 0.25 15.2 ± 0.15
Ethanol 29.36 ± 0.15 28.73 ± 0.30 26.96 ± 0.15 19.36 ± 0.40 23.6 ± 0.36 25.86 ± 0.11 27.16 ± 0.20
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Punica granatum Aqueous 14.4 ± 0.32 19.8 ± 0.15 18.7 ± 0.25 13.8 ± 0.11 15.5 ± 0.25 12.6 ± 0.20 15.8 ± 0.15
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 22.5 ± 0.25 23.2 ± 0.20 23.8 ± 0.11 21.5 ± 0.37 23.8 ± 0.15 22.6 ± 0.36 23. 6 ± 0.20
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Nigella sativa Aqueous - - - - - - -
n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 17.5 ± 0.30 16.0 ± 0.05 18.9 ± 0.15 17.5 ± 0.25 19.7 ± 0.15 15.8 ± 0.11 -
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
Bergenia ciliata Aqueous 15.4 ± 0.26 19.5 ± 0.15 23.7 ± 0.15 23.5 ± 0.32 20.0 ± 0.25 28.6 ± 0.15 23.8 ± 0.15
  n-Hexane - - - - - - -
Ethanol 22.830.15 18.6 ± 0.15 24.0 ± 0.10 23.7 ± 0.25 22.8 ± 0.15 29.4 ± 0.47 23.4 ± 0.26
Tetracyclin 36.2 ± 1.00 33.6 ± 0.85 32.7 ± 0.90 37.4 ± 0.55 33.8 ± 0.55 34.5 ± 0.72 38 ± 0.15
  Streptomycin 33.4 ± 0.40 32 ± 0.20 34.3 ± 0.55 35.2 ± 0.26 36.2 + 0.10 36 ± 1.00 35.2 ± 0.25
  1. ±: mean standard deviation of three replicates; −: no zone of inhibition.