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Table 3 Characteristics associated with obtaining treatment from an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner by symptom assessed by multivariate logistic regression

From: Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union

Characteristic Categories Headache Chest pain Bad cough Breathlessness Unusual lump under the skin Warts Vomiting Fever (≥3 days) Abdominal pain Diarrhoea
   aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)* aOR (95%CI)*
   N=16069 N=10385 N=13863 N=6292 N=3267 N=4621 N=9657 N=12874 N=10433 N=12425
Age (years) 18-39 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  40-64 1.12 (0.80-1.58) 1.15 (0.82-1.60) 1.28 (0.98-1.69) 1.03 (0.70-1.51) 1.25 (0.87-1.80) 0.89 (0.74-1.07) 0.90 (0.65-1.25) 1.12 (0.80-1.55) 1.16 (0.85-1.57) 1.02 (0.74-1.40)
  ≥65 0.84 (0.50-1.40) 0.90 (0.57-1.44) 1.09 (0.74-1.60) 0.76 (0.44-1.31) 0.81 (0.46-1.42) 0.76 (0.58-1.00) 1.17 (0.74-1.84) 0.99 (0.62-1.59) 1.27 (0.84-1.93) 0.80 (0.50-1.30)
Sex Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Female 1.07 (0.79-1.46) 0.68 (0.51-0.91)b 0.88 (0.70-1.12) 0.87 (0.62-1.22) 1.14 (0.82-1.59) 1.20 (1.01-1.42)a 1.23 (0.92-1.66) 0.73 (0.54-0.98)a 1.04 (0.80-1.36) 1.16 (0.87-1.55)
Education Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  High 1.09 (0.76-1.57) 1.05 (0.74-1.49) 0.85 (0.64-1.14) 1.04 (0.70-1.55) 0.52 (0.33-0.83)b 1.04 (0.86-1.26) 1.00 (0.71-1.42) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 1.17 (0.87-1.59) 0.73 (0.51-1.06)
Marital status Married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Single 0.74 (0.43-1.26) 0.97 (0.58-1.62) 1.18 (0.80-1.72) 1.11 (0.64-1.92) 0.53 (0.28-1.02) 0.78 (0.60-1.01) 1.04 (0.66-1.62) 0.84 (0.51-1.39) 1.24 (0.82-1.86) 0.71 (0.43-1.20)
  Divorced/widowed 1.14 (0.76-1.70) 1.40 (0.97-2.02) 1.33 (0.98-1.80) 1.40 (0.92-2.15) 0.95 (0.61-1.50) 0.86 (0.68-1.09) 1.11 (0.75-1.65) 1.51 (1.03-2.20)a 1.05 (0.73-1.50) 1.16 (0.80-1.70)
Setting Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Rural 1.76 (1.27-2.42)b 1.75 (1.29-2.37)c 1.22 (0.95-1.56) 1.94 (1.35-2.78)c 1.60 (1.11-2.29)a 1.33 (1.11-1.58)b 1.73 (1.26-2.36)b 1.58 (1.16-2.15)b 1.36 (1.03-1.79)a 1.43 (1.06-1.93)a
Wealth Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Middle 0.88 (0.60-1.29) 1.31 (0.89-1.93) 1.37 (1.00-1.88)a 1.21 (0.78-1.87) 1.16 (0.73-1.82) 1.15 (0.91-1.45) 1.06 (0.73-1.55) 1.33 (0.90-1.96) 1.61 (1.13-2.31)b 1.72 (1.14-2.61)a
  High 0.98 (0.59-1.65) 1.68 (1.02-2.78)a 1.40 (0.91-2.13) 1.32 (0.74-2.36) 1.17 (0.66-2.10) 1.06 (0.79-1.42) 1.25 (0.76-2.05) 1.45 (0.86-2.44) 1.48 (0.91-2.42) 1.75 (1.03-2.99)a
Trust in doctors Trust 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Distrust 1.33 (0.96-1.83) 1.04 (0.76-1.43) 1.19 (0.93-1.53) 1.19 (0.83-1.71) 1.41 (1.00-1.99) 1.16 (0.97-1.38) 1.46 (1.07-1.97)a 1.26 (0.92-1.72) 1.30 (0.98-1.72) 1.48 (1.10-1.98)a
Distance to health <5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
facility (km) ≥5 0.92 (0.53-1.61) 0.86 (0.47-1.56) 0.98 (0.63-1.54) 0.63 (0.32-1.27) 0.63 (0.30-1.33) 1.02 (0.75-1.40) 0.59 (0.31-1.10) 0.75 (0.42-1.34) 1.01 (0.63-1.60) 0.83 (0.48-1.43)
Country Armenia 0.84 (0.43-1.65) 0.65 (0.24-1.73) 1.15 (0.57-2.32) 1.09 (0.37-3.19) 1.25 (0.32-4.85) 0.95 (0.56-1.59) 0.93 (0.37-2.34) 2.39 (1.03-5.54)a 5.31 (2.82-9.98)c 2.09 (0.97-4.50)
  Belarus 0.67 (0.32-1.42) 0.83 (0.38-1.81) 1.63 (0.97-2.75) 1.76 (0.74-4.17) 2.61 (1.05-6.47)a 1.37 (1.00-1.88) 0.77 (0.37-1.63) 1.27 (0.52-3.07) 1.26 (0.59-2.69) 1.44 (0.70-2.95)
  Georgia 0.37 (0.14-0.96)a 1.69 (0.85-3.36) 2.12 (1.14-3.91)a 4.50 (1.96-10.29)c 1.74 (0.51-5.92) 0.95 (0.57-1.56) 0.50 (0.15-1.68) 2.62 (1.20-5.72)a 1.07 (0.44-2.61) 0.19 (0.02-1.40)
  Kazakhstan 1.47 (0.83-2.58) 2.72 (1.54-4.81)b 1.41 (0.81-2.45) 2.54 (1.12-5.73)a 5.80 (2.55-13.22)c 1.72 (1.27-2.34)b 0.72 (0.33-1.56) 2.30 (1.08-4.87)a 2.92 (1.50-5.66)b 1.48 (0.73-3.01)
  Kyrgyzstan 3.37 (2.10-5.41)c 3.20 (1.89-5.43)c 5.85 (3.82-8.96)c 6.46 (3.31-12.62)c 3.27 (1.50-7.13)b 1.66 (1.26-2.17)c 6.33 (3.91-10.26)c 9.96 (5.40-18.36)c 7.88 (4.58-13.57)c 7.27 (4.25-12.43)c
  Moldova 1.66 (0.97-2.84) 4.52 (2.74-7.48)c 6.02 (3.95-9.20)c 3.53 (1.68-7.41)b 6.31 (2.92-13.62)c 1.75 (1.29-2.38)c 2.98 (1.75-5.08)c 5.61 (2.95-10.65)c 5.49 (3.13-9.65)c 6.38 (3.65-11.15)c
  Russia 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Ukraine 1.00 (0.55-1.82) 1.76 (0.98-3.16) 1.93 (1.19-3.15)b 1.68 (0.76-3.74) 2.01 (0.80-5.09) 1.41 (1.04-1.92)a 1.11 (0.59-2.10) 3.52 (1.80-6.87)c 2.73 (1.50-4.98)b 2.82 (1.56-5.10)b
  1. * Mutually adjusted for all covariates in the model. Analysis is restricted to those who ever had the respective symptom; a P<0.05 b P<0.01 c P<0.001.