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Table 1 Proportion taking NHPs in the previous month: comparison by sex and to the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS) (total sample = 97)

From: Nutrient- and non-nutrient-based natural health product (NHP) use in adults with mood disorders: prevalence, characteristics and potential for exposure to adverse events

NHP Males (n = 28) % (95% CI) Females (n = 69) % (95% CI) Total (n = 97) % (95% CI) BCNS (n = 1823) % (95% CI)
Water Soluble Vitamins (Single)
Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine 68 (51 to 85)*** 14 (6 to 23) 31 (22 to 41) 0a
Vitamin B9 or folic acid 71 (55 to 88)*** 28 (17 to 38) 40 (30 to 51) 0a
Vitamin C 64 (47 to 82) 67 (56 to 78) 66 (56 to 75)+++ 24 (22 to 26)
Fat Soluble Vitamins (Single)
Vitamin A 25 (9 to 41)* 4 (0 to 9) 10 (5 to 18)+++ 2 (1 to 3)
Vitamin D 61 (43 to 79) 51 (40 to 62) 64 (54 to 79)+++ 1 (0 to 2)
Vitamin E 46 (28 to 65) 46 (35 to 58) 47 (37 to 58)+++ 17 (15 to 19)
Vitamin Combinations
Vitamin B complex (with or without vitamin C) 68 (51 to 85) 49 (37 to 61) 55 (44 to 65)+++ 9 (8 to 10)
Vitamin A and D combination 21 (6 to 37)* 4 (0 to 11) 9 (4 to 17)++ 3 (2 to 4)
Multivitamins 14 (1 to 27) 19 (10 to 28) 18 (11 to 27)+ 9 (8 to 10)
Minerals (Single and Combinations)
Iron preparations 21 (6 to 37) 20 (11 to 30) 34 (25 to 44)+++ 1 (0 to 2)
Singleb and multiple mineralsc 79 (63 to 94) 78 (69 to 87) 78 (69 to 86)+++ 13 (11 to 15)
Vitamin and Mineral Combinations
Vitamins and minerals 61 (43 to 79) 59 (49 to 71) 60 (49 to 70)+++ 31 (29 to 33)
Other NHPs
Enzymes or gastrointestinal productse 46 (28 to 65) 30 (20 to 41) 35 (26 to 45)+++ 6 (5 to 7)d
Replacementf or homeopathic preparationsg 46 (28 to 65) 29 (18 to 37) 34 (25 to 44)+++ 5 (4 to 6)
Herbal and natural productsh 61 (43 to 79) 51 (39 to 63) 54 (43 to 64)+++ 19 (17 to 21)
Other productsi 61 (43 to 79)* 88 (81 to 96) 75 (65 to 83)+++ 20 (18 to 22)
  1. aPyridoxine and folic acid could not be analyzed statistically due to 0% prevalence in the BCNS.
  2. bIncludes chromium, selenium, zinc, and magnesium.
  3. cIncludes calcium plus magnesium; calcium, magnesium plus zinc; mineral combinations including bromide, calcium, silicon, nitrogen, selenium, phosphorous, iodide, chromium, manganese, titanium, rubidium, cobalt, copper, antimony, molybdenum, strontium, zinc, nickel, tungsten, germanium, scandium, vanadium, tellurium, tin, lanthanum, yttrium, silver, gallium, bismuth, zirconium, cerium, cesium, gold, beryllium, hafnium, samarium, terbium, europium, gadolinium, dysprosium, thorium, holmium, lutetium, erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, praseodymium, niobium, tantalum, thallium, rhenium, indium, and palladium.
  4. dBCNS proportion < 1% but rounded to 1%.
  5. eIncludes antacids, adsorbents, laxatives, digestants.
  6. fElectrolyte-type supplements intended to prevent or treat electrolyte imbalances that include sports drinks, over-the-counter powders and tablets, over-the-counter electrolyte replenishers, oral rehydration formulae, and multiple electrolyte injections. Most preparations contained sodium, potassium magnesium, and calcium.
  7. gHomeopathic preparations contain medicinal ingredients and are prepared in accordance with the methods outlined in homeopathic pharmacopoeias.
  8. hIncludes herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations and finished herbal products, that contain as active ingredients parts of plants, or other plant materials, or combinations.
  9. iIncludes glucosamine, amino acids, evening primrose oil, coenzyme Q10, flax seed oil, lactic acid bacteria.
  10. Significant differences between males and females at *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001, and ***p < 0.0001.
  11. Significant differences between study sample and BCNS at +p < 0.05, ++p < 0.001, and +++p < 0.0001.