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Figure 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 3

From: Prokinetic and laxative effects of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia whole plant in rodents

Figure 3

Typical tracing (A) showing the partial atropine-sensitive spasmogenic effect of the crude methanolic extract of Viola betonicifolia (VBME) in comparison to acetylcholine (ACh) in the absence and presence of atropine (0.1 μM) and (B) showing the dose–response curves of the spasmogenic effect of the VBME in the absence and presence of atropine (0.1 μM), pyrilamine (1 μM), hexamethonium (0.3 mM) or SB203186 (1 μM), in isolated guinea-pig ileum preparations. The values shown are mean ± S.E.M of 4–7 individual experiments and expressed as the percentage of ACh maximum response. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 (Two-way ANOVA, followed by bonferoni post-test correction or unpaired t-test).

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