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Table 4 Correlates of adverse events (AE) among over-the-counter Chinese medicine users (n = 789)

From: Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

  % reporting past-year adverse events Unadjusted p-value Multivariable regression of socio-demographic factors* Full multivariable regression model**
% (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Total sample of COTC users 3.2% (1.9-4.4)    --
Gender   0.146   
 Male 2.2% (0.7-3.7)   1.00 --
 Female 4.0% (2.1-5.9)   1.40 (0.56-3.50)  
Age   0.043   
 18-44 1.9% (0.5-3.2)   1.00 --
 45+ 4.4% (2.4-6.4)   1.30 (0.49-3.49)  
Educational level   0.002   
 F6 and higher 0.7% (0.0-1.6)   1.00 1.00
 Up to F5 (grade 11) 4.8% (2.8-6.7)   7.43 (1.74-31.8)2 9.64 (2.20-42.3)2
Household income   0.291   
 HKD 15,000 or more 4.3% (1.2-7.5)   -- --
 HKD 0–14,999 2.7% (1.4-4.1)    
Health insurance   0.100   
 Insured 4.3% (2.2-6.3)   1.00 --
 Uninsured 2.2% (0.1-3.6)   1.34 (0.57-3.16)  
Employment   0.008   
 Employed or FT student 1.8% (0.1-3.0)   1.00 --
 All else 5.1% (2.7-7.5)   1.92 (0.79-4.64)  
COTC Knowledge levels   0.307   
 High knowledge score (> IQR) 6.0% (0.1-12.0)    --
 Score in interquartile range 2.9% (1.6-4.2)    
 Low knowledge score (< IQR) 2.9% (0.0-6.9)    
Perceived benefits   0.141   
 High benefits score (>IQR) 2.2% (0.3-4.1)    
 Score in interquartile range 4.2% (2.3-6.0)    
 Low benefits score (< IQR) 0.9% (0.0-2.8)    
Perceived barriers   0.472   
 Low barriers score (< IQR) 3.2% (0.4-5.9)    --
 Score in interquartile range 2.8% (1.3-4.2)    
 High barriers score (>IQR) 4.9% (1.0-8.7)    
Perceived severity of COTC AE   0.260   --
 High severity score (>IQR) 2.7% (1.4-4.0)    
 Score in interquartile range 4.3% (0.9-7.7)    
 Low severity score (< IQR) 7.7% (0.0-18.7)    
Perceived susceptibility to COTC AE   0.604   
 High susceptibility Score (>IQR) 2.9% (0.4-5.4)    --
 Score in interquartile range 2.6% (1.1-4.2)    
 Low susceptibility score (< IQR) 4.1% (1.3-6.9)    
Preventive practices   0.008   
 Low preventive practices Score (< IQR) 1.4% (0.0-3.3)    1.00
 Score in interquartile range 2.5% (1.0-3.9)    2.59 (0.55-12.1)
 High preventive practices score(>IQR ) 6.0% (2.7-9.4)    6.47 (1.38-30.3)1
Exposed to any TCM warnings   0.650   
 Yes, 2.9% (1.4-4.4)    --
 No/Can’t recall 3.5% (1.3-5.6)    
Self-efficacy for obtaining reliable COTC info?   0.123   
 Yes, have self-efficacy 2.4% (1.0-3.8)    1.00
 No/Not sure 4.4% ( 2.1-6.7)    1.42 (0.59-3.42)
Usual source of COTC info     
 Health professionals 2.2% (0.0-5.3) 0.570§   --
 Internet 2.3% (0.0-6.9) 0.724§   --
 Package labels & inserts 3.1% (1.2-4.6) 0.387§   --
 Family & Friends 3.8% (1.8-5.9) 0.377§   --
 Retailers 5.6% (2.2-9.0) 0.037§   1.98 (0.78-5.09)
 Newspapers 6.7% (2.0-13.2) 0.109§   0.61 (0.11-3.26)
 TV 9.4% (2.0-16.7) 0.003§   2.93 (1.01-8.50)1
 Magazines 11.9% (1.7-22.1) 0.001§   3.32 (1.03-10.7)1
 Books 6.9% (0.2-13.6) < 0.001§   2.74 (0.84-8.90)
  1. *Stepwise regression model using socio-demographic variables with p-value < 0.15 in the unadjusted analyses as candidate variables, non-significant covariates are shown with OR (95% CI) prior to removal from the final model.
  2. **Stepwise regression model using educational attainment in addition to attitudinal and behavioral variables with p-value < 0.15 in the unadjusted analyses as candidate variables.
  3. non-significant covariates are shown with OR (95% CI) prior to removal from the final model. Full Final model showed Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics = 0.595 and Variance Inflation Factor = 1.19.
  4. §p-values for comparison with those not reporting those behaviors.
  5. -- Variable not entered as candidate variable into multivariate model.
  6. 1p<0.05, 2p < 0.01.