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Table 1 Effect estimates of Chinese herbal medicines for recurrent miscarriage in 41 randomized trials

From: Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

Outcomes and comparisons Effect estimate (Random effect model, 95% CI) Studies Participants Study ID
Live birth rate     
CHM vs CM     
CHM vs progesterone-based treatment RR 1.31 [1.13, 1.52]*∆ 4 481 Feng [38], Li [20], Yan [35], Zhu [25]
CHM vs progesterone plus hCG-based treatment RR 1.25 [1.06, 1.47]* 1 158 Feng [45]
CHM vs CM with uncertain effect RR 0.97 [0.41, 2.33] 3 214 Huang [41], Li [18], Wang [26]
CHM plus CM vs CM     
CHM plus CM vs progesterone-based treatment RR 1.17 [1.06, 1.29]*∆ 4 315 Huang [22], Li [46], Li [27], Pan [47]
CHM plus CM vshCG-based treatment RR 1.20 [1.01, 1.43]* 1 75 He WH [19]
CHM plus CM vs progesterone plus hCG-based treatment RR 1.08 [0.93, 1.25] 3 148 Cai [48], Tian [16], Zhao [23]
CHM plus CM vs CM with uncertain effect RR 1.55 [1.16, 2.08]*∆ 5 485 He GY [21], Shu [11], Sun [40], Xie [34], Ye [9]
Embryonic developmental state     
CHM vs CM     
CHM vs progesterone-based treatment RR 1.43 [1.02, 1.99]*∆ 3 253 Wu [32], Xu [33], Yang [36]
CHM vs CM with uncertain effect RR 1.33 [0.99, 1.77]∆ 6 515 Ban [39], Liu [24], Luo [17], Tang [12], Tian [29], Zhao [49]
CHM plus CM vs CM     
CHM plus CM vs progesterone-based treatment RR 1.55 [1.23, 1.94]*∆ 2 191 Yang [14], Zou [42]
CHM plus CM vs progesterone plus hCG-based treatment RR 1.18 [1.05, 1.33]*∆ 4 252 Hou [31], Li [10], Wang [30], Wang [37]
CHM plus CM vs CM with uncertain effect RR 1.47 [1.03, 2.10]* 5 349 Fan [43], Li [44], Liu [15], Zhang [28], Zhou [13]
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, *the effect estimate favors experimental group; ∆, result from Meta-analysis; CHM Chinese herbal medicine, CM conventional medicine, hCG human chorionic gonadotrophin.