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Figure 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 4

From: Ursolic and oleanolic acids as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory compounds for tuberculosis treatment

Figure 4

Effect of Ursolic acid (UA)/Oleanolic acid (OA) administration on bacterial loads, pathology and cytokine expression during advanced disease in lungs from mice infected with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. (A) UA/OA administration (white bars) starting 60 days after infection decreased pulmonary bacterial loads when compared with those of control mice (black bars). (B) UA/OA-treated mice (white bars) at days 30 and 60 post-treatment showed less pneumonic area than the control group. (C) UA/OA treatment induced a slightly higher expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, and a significantly higher expression of inducible iNOS at day 60 when compared with non-treated control mice. ABS: correspond to 10 μg kg-1 rifampicin, 10 μg kg-1 isoniazid and 30 μg kg-1 pyrazinamid. Each point corresponds to the mean ± Standard deviation (SD) of groups of four mice. Asterisks represent the statistical significance between groups (*P < 0 · 05; **P < 0 · 01).

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