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Table 2 Biological activities of Egyptian herbal medicines against different bioassays related to AD

From: In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

No. Plant species Screening data IC50(μg/ml)
   % inhibition of ACHEa % inhibition of COX-1b DPPH (%AA)b ACHE COX-1 DPPH
1 A.vasica 86.0 - 19.0 294 N.D >100
2 A. vera. - - 31.0 - N.D >100
3 A. pyrethrum L. 21.0 - 90.0 N.D N.D 26.3
4 B. sacra −46.0 15.1 ± 5.7 8.0 N.D N.D >100
5 B. alba 16.0 52.3 ± 2.1 24.0 N.D N.D >100
6 B. nigra. 19.0 10.9 ± 1.6 42.0 N.D N.D >100
7 E. officinalis - - 97.0 N.D N.D 6.3
8 F. assafoetida 3.0 96.7 ± 1.3 17.0 N.D 3.2 >100
9 M. officinalis −49.0 - 6.0 N.D N.D >100
10 C. fistula. −16.0 19.2 ± 4.8 66.0 N.D N.D 75.0
11 N. oleander. - - 60.0 N.D N.D 64.5
12 N. sativa. 5.0 55.4 ± 8.8 19.0 N.D N.D >100
13 P. harmala. 92.0 - 41.0 68 N.D >100
14 P. nigrum. 34.0 - 30.0 N.D N.D >100
15 R. palmatum. −20.0 - 95.0 N.D N.D 14.2
16 R. officinalis. 10.0 11 ± 5.4 82.0 N.D N.D 19.4
17 R. graveolens. 8.0 - 69.0 N.D N.D 61.0
18 S. triloba. - - 93.0 N.D N.D 20.7
19 S. aromaticum 47.0 80.3 ± 0.9 89.0 N.D 34.9 15.9
20 T. arjuna −10.0 - 96.0 N.D N.D 3.1
21 T. chebula 13.0 - 95.0 N.D N.D 2.2
22 T. polium 16.0 - 51.0 N.D N.D 96.4
23 Z. officinalis −45.0 68.2 ± 3.1 47.0 N.D 33.6 >100
  Galanthamine n/a n/a n/a 9.4 n/a n/a
  Indomethancin n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.61 n/a
  Reference DPPH scavengers:       
t-BHQ       2.8
Gallic acid       1.2
  Quercetin       4.5
  1. aat 1000 μg/ml, bat 100 μg/ml, N.D not detected, n/a not applicable.