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  • Open Access

P02.101. Vitamin D status of female healthcare employees of childbearing age

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BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR)201212 (Suppl 1) :P157

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  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Meet Eligibility Criterion
  • Multivitamin Supplementation
  • Integrate Health Care


To examine the relationship between vitamin D status, reported vitamin D intake and body mass index in female health care employees.


Prospective observation study of 10,646 employees of a Midwestern integrated health care system who were measured for 25-OH-vitamin D by CLIA technology.


A total of 5,628 women (aged 15-49) met eligibility criteria. Of these, 1,710 (32.4%) did not meet 2010 ACOG or IOM vitamin D guidelines for vitamin D sufficiency (≥ 20 ng/ml); 3,684 (65.5%) did not meet 2010 international guidelines (≥ 30 ng/ml); and 4,874 (86.6%) did not meet 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines (40-60 ng/ml). Only 2,644 (46.97%) reported taking any vitamin D. For those participants who reported vitamin D3 intake equal to that found in prenatal and multivitamins (200-400 IUs) (n = 430), 17.7% had 25-OH-vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, 59.5% had levels <30 ng/ml, and 85.3% had levels <40 ng/ml. Mean 25-OH-vitamin D serum levels and standard deviations for higher reported vitamin D3 daily intakes of 1,001-2,000 IUs, 2001-3,000 IUs and 3,001-4,000 IUs and >4,000 IUs were 34.09 ng/ml (12.79), 39.52 ng/ml (16.16), 38.57 ng/ml (17.06) and 37.98 ng/ml (16.40), respectively. For all of these reported intakes, women with a BMI ≥ 30 exhibited significantly lower 25-OH-vitamin D status compared to those women with BMI < 30 (p <.0001).


Female healthcare workers of child bearing age demonstrate a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency. Daily prenatal or multivitamin supplementation does not ensure adequate 25-OH-vitamin D levels. A BMI ≥30 represents a substantially increased risk of suboptimal 25-OH-vitamin D status. Reported daily intake of >4,000 IUs did not result in elevated serum levels of vitamin D. These findings have substantial public health implications as vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased obstetrical and perinatal risks including gestational diabetes mellitus, premature delivery and emergent c-section.

Authors’ Affiliations

Allina Center for Healthcare Innovation, Minneapolis, USA
Allina Healthcare Employee Benefits, Minneapolis, USA
Minnesota Perinatal Physicians, Minneapolis, USA
University of Minnesota Carlson School of Business, Minneapolis, USA


© Plotnikoff et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.