Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants at baseline randomized to both the usual care control group and the Tai Chi intervention.

From: Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial

Variable Randomized to Usual Care (n = 43) Randomized to Tai Chi (n = 43) Per Protocol Tai Chi (n = 26)
Age in years (mean ± SD (range)) 60.4 ± 5.3 (46-70) 58.8 ± 5.6 (43-70) 59.1 ± 4.9 (51-68)
Race: n (%)    
White 36 (84) 37 (86) 21 (88)
African American 2 (5) 4 (9) 2 (8)
Asian 3 (7) 1 (2) 0 (0)
Other 2 (5) 1 (2) 1 (4)
Education: n(%)    
High School/GED 4 (9) 1 (2) 0
Some College 5 (12) 3 (7) 1 (4)
College 13 (30) 15 (35) 8 (33)
Graduate degree 21 (49) 24 (56) 15 (63)
BMI in kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 24.5 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 4.2 25.8 ± 3.8
Years post-menopause, n (%)    
1-7 18 (42) 24 (56) 12 (50)
> 7 18 (42) 12 (28) 7 (29)
unknown 7 (16) 7 (16) 5 (21)
Calcium supplementation, n (%)    
Yes 34 (79) 34 (79) 19 (79)
No 8 (19) 7 (16) 3 (13)
unknown 1 (2) 2 (5) 2 (8)
BMD in g/cm2 (mean ± SD):    
Femoral neck 0.692 ± 0.068 0.680 ± 0.063 0.685 ± 0.074
Total hip 0.837 ± 0.077 0.829 ± 0.073 0.832 ± 0.079
Spine 0.901 ± 0.128 0.898 ± 0.070 0.898 ± 0.076
Serum bone turnover markers (mean ± SD)    
CTX ng/ml 0.603 ± 0.231 0.554 ± 0.259 0.594 ± 0.300
OSC ng/ml 15.52 ± 4.94 16.29 ± 6.01 17.11 ± 7.02
Physical activity (PAR, kcal/kg/d) (mean ± SD) 144.5 ± 43.6 128.0 ± 38.4 123.9 ± 26.9
SF-36 (mean ± SD):    
Physical 53.2 + 5.6 53.5 + 6.1 51.9 + 6.8
Mental 55.8 + 4.8 52.0 + 7.7 53.7 + 7.0
Expectancy (mean ± SD)*:    
Q.1: 'Improving your health' 3.79 + 0.80 3.88 + 1.12 3.92 + 1.38
Q.2: 'Recommend to a friend' 3.67 + 1.13 3.60 + 1.69 3.67 + 1.74
Q.3: 'Makes sense to you' 4.09 + 0.97 4.19 + 1.10 4.21 + 1.32
  1. * Expectancy values based on 5 point Likert scale; higher values indicate greater expectancy that Tai Chi will positively impact health
  2. Also shown are data for the subset of participants randomized to Tai Chi whose compliance placed them in the "per protocol" group (i.e. ≥ 75% compliant with class and home practice). All continuous variables are means ± standard deviation. Categorical variable are described with frequency count followed by percentages..