- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan
© Shah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 2 August 2012
- Accepted: 24 November 2012
- Published: 5 December 2012
Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss.
Essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5 ml/kg b.w) was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50 mg/kg (b.w) was used as a standard drug.
The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w), pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were δ-cadinene (12.92%), α-pinene (10.3%), myrcene (8.64%), β-caryophyllene (8.23%), germacrene D (5.18%) and limonene (2.36%). Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI) occurred from 20-80 mg/kg (b.w) and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80 mg/kg (b.w), but PWI decreased at 160 mg/kg, which may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5 ± 1.72415 mg/kg (b.w).
Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use.
- Teucrium stocksianum
- Essential oil
Essential oils have been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The Chinese were expert in extraction and use of these oils. Essential oils are produced in specialized ducts called schizogenous ducts in plants. These oils have applications in food industry, fashion and pharmaceutical industry. Such oils have been used as foods preservatives and drugs. Mostly, these are used as topical preparations for analgesics, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. Nowadays, these are also used as mosquito repellents. All these properties are due to presence of secondary metabolites[1, 2].
The genus Teucrium belongs to the family Lamiaceae and contains 340 species. Untill now, 04 species have been reported in Pakistan. Medicinal properties of various species of Teucrium are reported in literature showing antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal activities[3–7]. Teucrium polium has been reported to possess antispasmodic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory,, hepatoprotective effect, and analgesic properties. While Teucrium chamaedrys has been used as antimalarial, antispasmodic and for gastric pain, kidney disorders, heart diseases etc[11, 12].
Lamiaceae family is rich in essential oils. The main components of the essential oil reported from the genus Teucrium are alpha pinene, linalool, carophyllene oxide, Germacrene D, beta carophyllene and delta cadinene. These phytochemicals possess antimicrobial, cytotoxic, phospholipase, esterase inhibitory properties and can prove very useful leads for novel drug development.
Teucrium stocksianum is a specie found in the North West of Pakistan (Dir, Swat, Malakand, and Hazara). It is a perennial aromatic herb of 10-30 cm height having grayish-white leaves and sessile flowers. It grows in mountains in shades. This plant is used in folk medicine for treating diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Due to its uses in traditional medicine system, several scientific studies have been conducted to rationalize and establish its therapeutic potential. Teucrium stocksianum possesses hepatoprotective and gastric cytoprotective properties[15, 16]. Crude saponins isolated from it have shown cytotoxic and anthelminthic effects, while antispasmodic activity has also been reported recently. These scientific studies indicate high medicinal potential of T. stocksianum. Due to its wild growth in nature and presence of valuable phytochemicals in other species of this genus prompted us to determine chemical composition and therapeutic potential on scientific grounds.
The aerial parts of T. stocksianum were collected in their full bloom stage from District Dir, in the province of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan, in May 2012. The plant was dried in shade under suitable condition of temperature in order to avoid any degradation, loss of essential oil and to retain the original colour of the plant. The dried plant was powdered for further use. The plant was identified by Professor Dr Nasrullah, Department of Botany, University of Malakand, Pakistan. A voucher specimen (H.UOM.BG.199) of the whole plant was deposited in the herbarium of the same University.
Essential oil extraction
The aerial parts of the plant, including inflorescence, small twinges and leaves were cut into small pieces. About 200 g of it was transferred to Clevenger type apparatus and was hydrodistilled for 3-4 h. At the end we got 0.4% (v/w) pale yellowish essential oil based on dried weight of plant. Anhydrous Sodium sulfide (Na2SO4) was used to dry the essential oil, which was stored at 4°C before analysis. The essential oil was subjected to GC-MS-analysis.
Chemicals and drugs
All chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade purchased from Merck, Pakistan. Diclofenic sodium was obtained from Sigma.
Statistics and calculations
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparison test was applied for the comparison among various groups. Differences with P ≤ 0.05 and lower between groups were considered significant.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
The components of the EO were analyzed using GC-MSQP 2010 (Tokyo, Japan), with an auto-injector (AOC-20i) and auto-sampler (AOC-20s). Sample was eluted with Helium gas. Components were separated with capillary column (DB-5MS Prepared by Agilent Technology USA) having 30 m length, 0.250 mm internal diameter and 0.25 micro meter thickness. Electron impact ionization mode with energy 70 ev, ion source temperature 250°C, interface temperature 240°C with 80 KPa pressure, 1.8 min solvent cut time. Injector temperature was 250°C and operated in split mode with 1 ml/min. The column was programmed at a temperature of 50°C for 1 min initially and then changed to 150°C at the rate of 15°C/min and kept constant 15 min. The column temperature was increased to 280°C at a rate of 2.5°C per min and was maintained for 3 min. Mass spectra were acquired in the range of 40 to 650 m/z. A series of normal alkanes was also injected under same analytical conditions with that of the essential oil for the calculation of Retention Indices. Components of the essential oil were identified by comparing the mass spectra obtained with those of standard mass spectra from the NIST library (NIST 05). Relative concentration of the components was calculated from the peak areas of the total ion chromatograms.
Swiss Albino mice of either sex, weighing between 20-30 g of approximately same age were used for the present study. Animals were kept under controlled laboratory conditions on 10/14 h light and dark period with free access to laboratory diet and water. All animals were fasted for 24 h before the test. Animal’s studies were performed according to the Scientific Procedures Issue-1 of Animal Bylaws-2008 approved by the legal bodies of the University of Malakand Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. The ethical committee of the department of pharmacy granted approval for conducting this study under the said protocols (Procedures Issue-1 of Animal Bylaws-2008).
Acetic acid induced writhing test; Swiss Albino mice of both sexes were divided into five groups, each including six animals. 2.5% Tween-80 solution (10 ml/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to control group. Test groups were treated with an emulsion of Teucrium stocksianum essential oil of Tween-80 (2.5% v/v, water as a vehicle), at a dose of 20-160 mg/kg and standard group received intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg dose of Diclofenic sodium. After 30 min, 0.6% acetic acid (15 ml/kg) was injected through the same route. Total writhes produced in each mouse were noted for 20 min immediately after injection of acetic acid. Antinociception was determined by reduction of writhing numbers by comparing the number of writhes produced in the control group treated with Tween-80 and to that of test groups treated with Teucrium stocksianum essential oil doses of 20-160 mg/kg.
Percentage composition of the essential oil from the aerial part of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss
Scientific studies are conducted globally to evaluate antinociceptive efficacy of essential oils. The data from such studies shows that essential oils of various plants containing chemical constituents exert good antinociceptive effects through various mechanisms. Although medicinal plants are often tested for their therapeutic effect as a whole in experiments, studies are available in which single chemical constituents have been tested. Him et al. and Ozbek et al. have evaluated a positive analgesic effect of alpha pinene in their study[33, 34]. Similarly analgesic activity of myrcene, limonene, linalool and caryophyllene oxide have been observed.
Antinociceptive effect of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum bioss on abdominal writhing in mice indused acetic acid abdominal injection
Number of wriths in 20 min (mean ± S.D)
Control (10 ml/kg) Essential oil
58 ± 5.600
30.333 ± 2.42212
9.6667 ± 2.16025
3.5000 ± 1.64317
17.5000 ± 3.50714
17.3333 ± 3.55903
The results of antinociceptive effect of our study are similar to that of essential oil extracted from Teucrium polium with respect to antinociceptive potential. T stocksianum caused 93% writh inhibition at a dose of 80 mg/kg, while T polium produced similar effect (90.22%) at a dose of 75 mg/kg (Abdollahi, Karimpour et al. 2003;). This resemblance may be due to qualitative and quantitative similarities in the chemical composition of the essential oil of the two species. Furthermore Teucrium stocksianum is abundantly available in the North West of Pakistan and it grows wildly. It is commonly used in the folk medicinal system of this region. Our study has explored a new source of a very potent and economic analgesic. Such type of studies in which indigenous resources are used would not only provide effective and economical remedies but would also help in poverty reduction of the region.
Our result pertaining to the composition of essential oil has shown that the composition of the essential oil of the same specie collected from different geographical locations and in different seasons are not the same. Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has been evaluated by Moghtader et al. from Iran, Nasser et al. from Yeman, Bagic et al from Turky, Yousuf et al. from United Arab emirates (UAE) et al. The results of all these researcher shows a lot of qualitative and quantitative variation in composition (19-21).
Furthermore, essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum possesses a strong antinociceptive potential, which needs further scientific investigation for the rational use as a topical analgesic.
All authors are thankful to the Professor Dr Muhammad Rasul Jan, the Vice Chancellor of University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan, for providing funds for this project. We are also thankful to Dr Nasrullah Professor Department of Botany of the same University for helping us in the identification of the plant.
- Evans WC, Evans D, Trease GE: Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 2009, Edinburgh, Scotland: Saunders/ElsevierGoogle Scholar
- Pohlit AM, Lopes NP, Gama RA, Tadei WP, Neto VF: Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils—a review. Planta Med. 2011, 77 (6): 598-617. 10.1055/s-0030-1270723.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yildirim A, Cakir A, Mavi A, Yalcin M, Fauler G, Taskesenligil Y: The variation of antioxidant activities and chemical composition of essential oils of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale during harvesting stages. Flavour and Fragrance J. 2004, 19 (5): 367-372. 10.1002/ffj.1343.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad B, Shah SM, Bashir S, Begum H: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of teucrium royleanum (Labiatea). J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008, 23 (1): 136-139. 10.1080/14756360701448727.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez Puntero B, Iglesias Peinado I, del Fresno AM V: Anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity of Teucrium buxifolium. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997, 55 (2): 93-98. 10.1016/S0378-8741(96)01479-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gharaibeh MN, Elayan HH, Salhab AS: Hypoglycemic effects of Teucrium polium. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988, 24 (1): 93-99. 10.1016/0378-8741(88)90139-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad B, Mukarram Shah SM, Khan H, Hassan Shah SM: Enzyme inhibition activities of Teucrium royleanum. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007, 22 (6): 730-732. 10.1080/14756360701306271.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tariq M, Ageel AM, al-Yahya MA, Mossa JS, al-Said MS: Anti-inflammatory activity of Teucrium polium. Int J Tissue React. 1989, 11 (4): 185-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Panovska TK, Kulevanova S, Gjorgoski I, Bogdanova M, Petrushevska G: Hepatoprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium L. against carbontetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats. Acta Pharm. 2007, 57 (2): 241-248. 10.2478/v10007-007-0020-x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abdollahi M, Karimpour H, Monsef-Esfehani HR: Antinociceptive effects of Teucrium polium L total extract and essential oil in mouse writhing test. Pharmacol Res. 2003, 48 (1): 31-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Genc GE, Özhatay N: An ethnobotanical study in Çatalca (European part of Istanbul) II. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2006, 3 (2): 73-89.Google Scholar
- Pieroni A, Quave CL: Traditional pharmacopoeias and medicines among Albanians and Italians in southern Italy: a comparison. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 101 (1–3): 258-270.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva ACR, Lopes PM, De Azevedo MMB, Costa DC, Alviano CS, Alviano DS: Biological activities of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene enantiomers. Molecules. 2012, 17 (6): 6305-6316. 10.3390/molecules17066305.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rahim G, Qureshi R, Gulfraz M, Arshad M, Rahim S: Preliminary phytochemical screening and ethnomedicinal uses of Teucrium stocksianum from Malakand Division. J Med Plants Res. 2012, 6 (5): 704-707.Google Scholar
- Rasheed RA, Ali BH, Bashir AK: Effect of Teucrium stocksianum on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Gen Pharmacol. 1995, 26 (2): 297-301. 10.1016/0306-3623(94)00208-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wasfi IA, Bashir AK, Amiri MH, Abdalla AA, Banna NR, Tanira MOM: Gastric Cytoprotective Activity of Teucrium stocksianum extract in rats. Pharm Biol. 1995, 33 (2): 164-171. 10.3109/13880209509055219.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ali N, Shah SW, Shah I, Ahmed G, Ghias M, Khan I: Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011, 11: 106-10.1186/1472-6882-11-106.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Collier HO, Dinneen LC, Johnson CA, Schneider C: The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the mouse. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1968, 32 (2): 295-310.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bagci E, Yazgın A, Hayta S, Cakılcıoglu U: Composition of the essential Oil of Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. J Med Plants Res. 2010, 4 (23): 2583-2587.Google Scholar
- Morteza-Semnani K, Akbarzadeh M, Rostami B: The essential oil composition of Teucrium chamaedrys L. from Iran. Flavour and Fragrance J. 2005, 20 (5): 544-546. 10.1002/ffj.1479.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yousuf MHA, Bashir AK, Dobos Á, Veres K, Nagy G, Máthé I, Blunden G: The Composition of the Essential Oil of Teucrium stocksianum from the United Arab Emirates. J Essent Oil Res. 2002, 14: 47-48. 10.1080/10412905.2002.9699759.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Küçük M, Güleç C, Yaşar A, Üçüncü O, Yaylι N, Coşkunçelebi K, Terzioğlu S, Yaylι N: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Teucrium chamaedrys. subsp. chamaedrys., T. orientale. var. puberulens., and T. chamaedrys. subsp. lydium. Pharm Biol. 2006, 44 (8): 592-599. 10.1080/13880200600896868.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jaimand K, Rezaee MB, Soltanipoor MA, Mozaffarian V: Volatile Constituents of Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. ssp. stocksianum from Iran. J Essent Oil Res. 2006, 18 (5): 476-477. 10.1080/10412905.2006.9699145.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moghtader M: Chemical composition of the essential oil of Tecucrium polium L. from Iran. Am-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2009, 5 (6): 843-846.Google Scholar
- Ali NAA, Wurster M, Arnold N, Lindequist U, Wessjohan L: Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Teucrium yemense Deflers. Rec Nat Prod. 2008, 2 (2): 25-32.Google Scholar
- Ahmadi L, Mirza M, Shahmir F: Essential Oil of Teucrium melissoides Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss. J Essent Oil Res. 2002, 14 (5): 355-356. 10.1080/10412905.2002.9699882.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aburjai T, Hudaib M, Cavrini V: Composition of the Essential Oil from Jordanian Germander (Teucrium polium L.). J Essent Oil Res. 2006, 18 (1): 97-99. 10.1080/10412905.2006.9699398.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Flamini G, Cioni PL, Morelli I, Maccioni S, Monti G: Composition of the essential oil of Teucrium fruticans L. from the Maremma Regional Park (Tuscany, Italy). Flavour and Fragrance J. 2001, 16 (5): 367-369. 10.1002/ffj.1014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro LR, Antunes T, Sevinate-Pinto I, Barroso JG: Composition of the essential oil and micromorphology of trichomes of Teucrium salviastrum, an endemic species from Portugal. Flavour and Fragrance J. 2002, 17 (4): 287-291. 10.1002/ffj.1068.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bulow N, Konig WA: The role of germacrene D as a precursor in sesquiterpene biosynthesis: investigations of acid catalyzed, photochemically and thermally induced rearrangements. Phytochemistry. 2000, 55 (2): 141-168. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00266-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kiran SR, Devi PS: Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of essential oil and sesquiterpenes from leaves of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Parasitol Res. 2007, 101 (2): 413-418. 10.1007/s00436-007-0485-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sousa DP: Analgesic-like activity of essential oils constituents. Molecules. 2011, 16: 2233-2252. 10.3390/molecules16032233.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Him A, Ozbek H, Turel I, Oner AC: Antinoceceptive activity of alpha-pinen and fenchone. Pharmacologyonline. 2008, 3: 363-369.Google Scholar
- Santos FA, Rao VSN, Silveira ER: Investigations on the antinociceptive effect of Psidium guajava leaf essential oil and its major constituents. Phytother Res. 1998, 12 (1): 24-27. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(19980201)12:1<24::AID-PTR181>3.0.CO;2-B.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rao VSN, Menezes AMS, Viana GSB: Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990, 42 (12): 877-878.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- do Amaral JF, Silva MI, Neto MR, Neto PF, Moura BA, de Melo CT, de Araujo FL, de Sousa DP, de Vasconcelos PF, de Vasconcelos SM: Antinociceptive effect of the monoterpene R-(+)-limonene in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007, 30 (7): 1217-1220. 10.1248/bpb.30.1217.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peana AT, D’Aquila PS, Chessa ML, Moretti MD, Serra G, Pippia P: (-)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003, 460 (1): 37-41. 10.1016/S0014-2999(02)02856-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chavan MJ, Wakte PS, Shinde DB: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark. Phytomedicine. 2009, 17 (2): 149-151.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deraedt R, Jouquey S, Delevallee F, Flahaut M: Release of prostaglandins E and F in an algogenic reaction and its inhibition. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980, 61 (1): 17-24. 10.1016/0014-2999(80)90377-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang J, Huang B, Wang G: Chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil from the roots of Illicium lanceolatum. Nat Prod Res. 2012, 26: 1712-1714. 10.1080/14786419.2011.603318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pinheiro BG, Silva AS, Souza GE, Figueiredo JG, Cunha FQ, Lahlou S, da Silva JK, Maia JG, Sousa PJ: Chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents of the essential oil of Peperomia serpens (Sw.). Loud J Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 138 (2): 479-486.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amorim AC, Lima CK, Hovell AM, Miranda AL, Rezende CM: Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga). Phytomedicine. 2009, 16 (10): 923-928. 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M, Roghani-Dehkordi F: Antinociceptive effect of Teucrium polium leaf extract in the diabetic rat formalin test. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 97 (2): 207-210. 10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.030.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/12/244/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.