- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice
© Sarkar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 21 March 2012
- Accepted: 12 August 2012
- Published: 31 August 2012
The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice.
The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound). Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied.
In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19 ± 2.80 μg/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 μg/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p.) caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract also showed potential activity for reductive release of ferritin iron.
These findings suggest that Terminalia chebula extract may contain active substances capable of lessening iron overload induced toxicity, and hence possibly be useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.
- Liver Fibrosis
- Iron Overload
- Fruit Extract
Iron is an important trace element of the body, being found in functional form in hemoglobin, myoglobin, the cytochromes, enzymes with iron sulphur complexes and other iron-dependent enzymes . Iron has the unique ability to alter its oxidation and redox states in response to liganding, which makes it essential for various cellular processes . The cells maintain the free iron concentration to a minimum required level to avoid toxic effects of excess iron. But, in some situation the iron balance is disrupted and resulting in iron overload which is associated with the oxidative stress induced several health problems including anemias, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, fibrosis, gallbladder disorders, diabetes, arthritis, depression, impotence, infertility, and cancer . The body lacks any effective means to excrete excessive iron and therefore the interest has been grown to develop the potent chelating agent capable of complexing with iron and promoting its excretion [4, 5].
Terminalia chebula Retz. (abbreviated as TC) from Combretaceae family is an important medicinal herb which grows throughout central Asia and some other parts of the world . The dried ripe fruit of TC is used widely in the indigenous system of medicine (ayurvedic) for its homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and cardiotonic activities  and serves as a major component of widely used ayurvedic formulation, ‘Triphala’ . TC extract has also been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities including antioxidant [9–11], anticancer [12–14], cytoprotective , antidiabetic [16, 17], antibacterial , gastro protective  and hepatoprotective  activities. The phytochemical analysis shows that TC is a rich source of various phenolic and flavonoid compounds  which are well known for their free radical scavenging and iron chelation property . Earlier, we have also reported the ROS scavenging and reducing property of 70% methanol extract of T. chebula and it also found to possess significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds .
Iron overload increases the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which involves the initiation of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and liver fibrosis. However, excess iron is stored as Fe3+ in ferritin and iron overload sustains for long period if the stored iron is not getting reduced and released because the efficiency of iron chelating drugs depend on the reductive release of ferritin iron . Moreover, 70% methanol extract of T. chebula was earlier reported to contain some notable antioxidants, viz., ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-β-D-glucopyranose and chebulinic acid . Based on these observations, the present study was performed to assess iron chelating activity of 70% methanol extract of T. chebula (TCME) and whether this activity along with reducing power can normalize the damage caused to liver by iron overload.
Iron-dextran and guanidine hydrochloride was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, USA. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), ferrozine, glutathione reduced, bathophenanthroline sulfonate disodium salt, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and 5,5′-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) were obtained from Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India. Hydrogen peroxide, ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate [(NH4)2Fe(SO4)26H2O], 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), chloramine-T, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, dimethyl-4-aminobenzaldehyde and 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazin (DNPH) were obtained from Merck, Mumbai, India. Ferritin was purchased from MP Biomedicals, USA. Streptomycin sulphate was obtained from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India. The standard oral iron chelating drug, desirox, with the parent group Deferasirox, was obtained from Cipla Ltd., Kolkata, India.
The fruits of TC were collected from Bankura district of West Bengal, India. It was identified and authenticated by the Central Research Institute (Ayurveda), Kolkata, India and a voucher specimen (CRHS 113/08) was submitted there.
Male Swiss albino mice (20 ± 2 g) were purchased from Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), Kolkata, India and were maintained under a constant 12 h dark/light cycle at an environmental temperature of 22 ± 2°C. The animals were provided with normal laboratory pellet diet and water ad libitum. All experiments were performed after obtaining approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, with certified regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India (Bose Institute Registration. No. 95/1999/CPCSEA).
Preparation of plant extract
The powder (100 g) of the air dried fruits of TC was stirred using a magnetic stirrer with 500 ml mixture of methanol: water (7:3) for 15 h; then the mixture was centrifuged at 2850 x g and the supernatant decanted. The process was repeated again with the precipitated pellet. The supernatants were collected, concentrated in a rotary evaporator and lyophilized. The dried extract, denoted as TCME was stored at −20° C until use. An aqueous solution with various concentrations of TCME was used for all the experiments.
In vitro study
The chelating activity of TCME for ferrous ion was evaluated by a previously described method . In a Hepes buffer (20 mM, pH 7.2) medium, TCME (0–120 μg/ml) was added to ferrous sulfate solution (12.5 μM) and the reaction was started by the addition of ferrozine (75 μM). The mixture was shaken vigorously and left standing for 20 min at room temperature. The absorbance was then taken at 562 nm. All tests were performed six times. EDTA was used as a positive control.
The ability of the fruit extract to protect the DNA supercoil can be expressed by the concentration of sample required for 50% protection, designated as the [P]50 value.
In vivo study
Thirty-six mice were distributed into six groups comprising six mice in each group. One group received normal saline only and served as blank (B). The other five groups were given five doses (one dose every two days) of 100 mg/kg b.w. each, of iron-dextran saline (i.p). Normal saline was administered to one iron-dextran group (C) and other four groups were orally treated with 50 mg/kg b.w. (S50), 100 mg/kg b.w. (S100), 200 mg/kg b.w. (S200) TCME and 20 mg/kg b.w. desirox (D), respectively, for three consecutive 7 day periods, started from the day after the first iron-dextran injection.
Sample collection and tissue preparation
Mice were fasted overnight after the experiment ended on the 21st day. Then they were anesthetized by ethyl ether and blood was collected by cardiac puncture. After the clotting of blood samples, sera were separated by centrifugation and stored at −80°C until analysis. The liver was dissected out and blood cells were eliminated after rinsing with ice-cold saline, half of them were cut, weighed and homogenized in 10 volume of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 5 mM EDTA and 0.15 M NaCl, and centrifuged at 8000 x g for 30 min at 4°C. The supernatant was collected and used for the determination of lipid per oxidation, protein oxidation, hydroxyproline content and enzyme activities. A standard graph of BSA was prepared to estimate the protein concentration in the homogenate by Lowry method . The other half of the liver samples were weighed and digested with equivolume (1:1) mixture of sulphuric acid and nitric acid and their iron content were analysed.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and bilirubin in serum samples were measured using the commercial kits of Merck, Mumbai, India. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was estimated using the kit supplied by Sentinel Diagnostics, Italy.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assayed by measuring the inhibition of the formation of blue colored formazan at 560 nm according to the technique reported previously . Catalase (CAT) activity was measured by following the decomposition of H2O2 over time at 240 nm according to a previously described method . Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was determined by a formerly reported method  based on the formation of GSH-CDNB conjugate and increase in the absorbance at 340 nm. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was measured spectrophotometrically at 412 nm by a standard method .
Lipid peroxidation products
According to a formerly reported method , the lipid peroxide levels in liver homogenates were measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as an index of malondialdehyde accumulation.
Protein carbonyl content
As a marker of protein oxidation, protein carbonyl contents were estimated spectrophotometrically by a previously described method . Briefly, 450 μl sample homogenate was mixed with 50 μl streptomycin sulphate (10% w/v) and then centrifuged at 2800 g for 15 min. Then 200 μl of the supernatant was incubated with the same volume of 10 mM DNPH in 2 M HCl at room temperature for 20 min. After the reaction was completed, 10% cold TCA was added to precipitate the proteins and the precipitates were washed with ethyl acetate-ethanol mixture (1:1) for three times to remove unreacted DNPH. The final protein pellet was dissolved in 1 ml of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride solution and the absorbance was measured at 370 nm, using the molar extinction coefficient of DNPH, ε = 2.2x10-4 M-1 cm-1.
Hydroxyproline content represents the content of collagen, which is closely related with liver fibrosis. Liver samples were hydrolized in 6 M HCl and hydroxyproline was measured by Ehrlich’s solution according to the method described previously . A standard curve (R 2 = 0.9907) of 4-hydroxy-L-proline was prepared and results were calculated after taking absorbances at 558 nm. The collagen content was determined by multiplying amount of total hydroxyproline content in each sample by a factor of 7.69 . Results are expressed as milligrams of collagen per liver (wet weight).
Liver iron and serum ferritin
Liver iron was measured according to a formerly reported colorimetric method . Samples were incubated with bathophenanthroline sulfonate for 30 min at 37 °C and absorbances were measured at 535 nm. Serum ferritin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (from Monobind Inc., USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Iron release from ferritin
Iron release assay was performed according to a previously described method . The release of ferritin iron was measured using the ferrous chelator ferrozine as a chromophore. The reaction mixture (3 ml final volume) contained 200 μg ferritin, 500 μM ferrozine, in 50 mM pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. Reaction was started by the addition of 500 μl TCME of different concentrations (100–500 μg) and the change in absorbance was measured continuously at 560 nm for 20 min. A cuvette containing ferritin, ferrozine and phosphate buffer but lacking plant extract was used as the reference solution.
All data are reported as the mean ± SD of six measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using KyPlot version 2.0 beta 15 (32 bit) and Origin professional 6.0. Comparisons among groups were made according to pair t-test. The IC50 values were calculated by the formula, Y = 100*A1/(X + A1) where A1 = IC50, Y = response (Y = 100% when X = 0), X = inhibitory concentration. In all analyses, a p value of < 0.05 was considered significant.
In vitro study
In vivo study
The effect of TCME on serum marker enzymes (ALAT, ASAT and ALP) and Bilirubin in iron overloaded mice
16.87 ± 2.07
30.07 ± 1.77
133.58 ± 7.76
1.29 ± 0.15
36.08 ± 2.76X2
69.8 ± 1.46X3
398.76 ± 24.73X2
3.21 ± 0.23X3
33.27 ± 2.91X2
50.67 ± 3.58X2Y2
265.11 ± 19.09X2Y3
2.45 ± 0.19X3Y2
30.85 ± 2.53X2
43.71 ± 1.33X2Y3
236.08 ± 12.25X2Y2
1.92 ± 0.19X2Y3
22.33 ± 1.99X1Y1
37.96 ± 2.13X2Y3
147.52 ± 12.11Y2
1.55 ± 0.06X1Y2
23.55 ± 1.39X1Y1
44.67 ± 5.52X1Y1
151.58 ± 9.92X2Y2
1.59 ± 0.12X2Y2
Protein carbonyl content
Liver iron and serum ferritin
Iron release from ferritin
Correlation between reducing power with ferritin iron release
Iron is the most common cofactor within the oxygen handling biological machinery and, specifically, lipid peroxidation of biological membranes is the main pathogenic mechanism of iron overload induced tissue damage . Harmful effects of extreme iron deposition in liver are likely during iron overload states (e.g., genetic hemochromatosis, thalassemia major and transfusional siderosis). In such conditions, iron has been associated with the initiation and propagation of ROS induced oxidative damage to all biomacromolecules (proteins, lipids, sugar and DNA) that can lead to a critical failure of biological functions and ultimately cell death . An effective therapeutic approach can play a double role in reducing the rate of oxidation - one by sequestering and chelating cellular iron stores  and other as radical trap (i.e., antioxidant activity). Since TCME has shown antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity , the present study, primarily incorporates the in vitro iron chelation potency of TCME, and inhibition of iron mediated DNA breakdown. Consequently, in vivo ameliorating effect of TCME on iron accumulation and oxidative damage in liver of iron overloaded mice is studied. Intraperitoneal iron-dextran injection resembled the hemochromatosis secondary to iron loaded anemias (anemias treated with repeated transfusions) and high iron oral intake , while avoiding direct interruption of fruit extract on intestinal iron absorption leading to hepatic and serum iron overload.
Intracellular defense mechanism against free radical generation and pathogenesis involves antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GST or compounds such as GSH . Excess iron imbalances their levels with excess ROS production thus resulting oxidative stress, followed by peroxidative decomposition of cellular membrane lipids which is a postulated mechanism of hepatocellular injury in iron overload . Alongside, the iron overload generated ROS can lead to oxidation of protein backbone resulting in modification of catalytic and structural integrity of various important proteins  contributing to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis . In turn, hepatic injury by iron results in the leakage of cellular enzymes into the bloodstream, resulting in augmented levels of serum ALAT, ASAT, ALP and bilirubin .
The in vitro results from Figure 1 suggest that TCME has iron chelating activity, although not as good as the standard EDTA. The significant dose-dependent reduction in the formation of Fe2+-dependent hydroxyl radical induced nicked DNA and increase in supercoiled DNA in the presence of TCME reveal its excellent iron chelating activity. The in vivo results showed that TCME administration in iron overloaded mice restored the antioxidant enzymes level significantly. Chiefly, the present study demonstrated the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation inhibiting capability of TCME, which is supposed to be associated with its iron chelating activity. Iron overload causes a significant increase of hydroxyproline, a marker of liver fibrosis. Treatment with TCME significantly reduced hydroxyproline content in iron intoxicated mice, thus demonstrating the hepatic fibrosis inhibitory potency of the fruit extract. Moreover, the direct effect of TCME to reduce hepatic iron content in treated mice supported its iron chelating potency. Above all, TCME reduced the serum enzymes as well as the total Bilirubin levels, indicating its protective effect over liver damage by iron overload and improvement in its functional efficiency.
Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron in a non-toxic ferric form and also helps prevent iron from mediating oxidative damage to cell constituents . Serum ferritin concentration is the most sensitive indicator of the severity of iron overload and its level usually increases when body’s iron stores increase. In this study, the ferritin level was found enhanced in iron overloaded mice, whereas, the level significantly reduced after the treatment with TCME.
Maximum iron chelators depend on the availability of Fe2+, which in turn depends on the rate of reductive release of iron from ferritin. Therefore, successive chelation therapy includes the supplementation of ascorbate as reducing agent to increase the availability of storage iron to chelators . Previously, TCME had shown reductive ability  as well as in the present study; a significant positive correlation between reducing power and iron released from ferritin has been well established. Therefore, TCME can also be used as drug to treat iron overload as the present results show its reductive release activity of ferritin iron dose dependently as well as time dependently.
The current investigation of 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia chebula showed that the extract which possesses both reducing power and iron chelating activity can reduce the toxic level of iron in iron overloaded mice and hence protect liver from oxidative stress and fibrosis. Taken together, the current findings will be of use in elucidating the pharmacology and application of TCME as a potential iron chelating drug in the treatment of iron overload diseases.
Mr. Bibhabasu Hazra is grateful to Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Govt. of India for the support of fellowship. Cipla Ltd., Kolkata, India is acknowledged for providing desirox as reference iron chelating drug for this study. The authors would also like to thank Mr. Ranjit K. Das and Mr. Pradip K. Mallik for technical assistance in sample preparation, handling of lab wares and animals in experimental procedures.
- Pulla Reddy AC, Lokesh BR: Effect of curcumin and eugenol on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Toxicol. 1996, 107: 39-45. 10.1016/0300-483X(95)03199-P.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kruszewski M: Labile iron pool: the main determinant of cellular response to oxidative stress. Mutat Res. 2003, 531: 81-92. 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2003.08.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goodman LS, Gilman A: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 2006, McGraw-Hill: New York, 11Google Scholar
- Liu ZD, Hider RC: Design of iron chelators with therapeutic application. Coord Chem Rev. 2002, 232: 151-171. 10.1016/S0010-8545(02)00050-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Birch N, Wang X, Chong HS: Iron chelators as therapeutic iron depletion agents. Expert Opin Ther Patents. 2006, 16: 1533-1556. 10.1517/13543718.104.22.1683.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kapoor LD: Handbook of ayurvedic medicinal plants. Edited by: Boca R. 2001, CRC Press, 5Google Scholar
- Lee HS, Won NH, Kim KH, Lee H, Jun W, Lee KW: Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula in vivo and in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005, 28: 1639-1644. 10.1248/bpb.28.1639.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, Mohan H: In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents. Phytother Res. 2005, 19: 582-586. 10.1002/ptr.1515.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheng HY, Lin TC, Yu KH, Yang CM, Lin CC: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003, 26: 1331-1335. 10.1248/bpb.26.1331.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mahesh R, Bhuvana S, Begum VMH: Effect of Terminalia chebula aqueous extract on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in the liver and kidney of young and aged rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009, 27: 358-363. 10.1002/cbf.1581.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang CL, Lin CS: Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Neuroprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius Extracts. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2011, 2012: 10.1155/2012/125247.Google Scholar
- Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K: Inhbition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 81: 327-336. 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00099-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reddy DB, Reddy TC, Jyotsna G, Sharan S, Priya N, Lakshmipathi V, Reddanna P: Chebulagic acid, a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. induces apoptosis in COLO-205 cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 124: 506-512. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.05.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Das ND, Jung KH, Park JH, Mondol MAM, Shin HJ, Lee HS, Park KS, Choi MR, Kim KS, Kim MS, Lee SR, Chai YG: Terminalia chebula Extract Acts as a Potential NF‐κB Inhibitor in Human Lymphoblastic T Cells. Phytother Res. 2011, 25: 927-934. 10.1002/ptr.3398.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Na M, Bae K, Kang SS, Min BS, Yoo JK, Kamiryo Y, Senoo Y, Yokoo S, Miwa N: Cytoprotective effect on oxidative stress and inhibitory effect on cellular aging of Terminalia chebula fruit. Phytother Res. 2004, 18: 737-741. 10.1002/ptr.1529.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rao NK, Nammi S: Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006, 6: 17-10.1186/1472-6882-6-17.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim JH, Hong CO, Koo YC, Kim SJ, Lee KW: Oral Administration of Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Portion of Terminalia chebula Conferring Protection from Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mellitus and Its Complications. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011, 34: 1702-1709. 10.1248/bpb.34.1702.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malekzadeh F, Ehsanifar H, Shahamat M, Levin M, Colwell RR: Antibacterial activity of black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) against Helicobacter pylori. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001, 18: 85-88. 10.1016/S0924-8579(01)00352-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharma P, Prakash T, Kotresha D, Ansari MA, Sahrm UR, Kumar B, Debnath J, Goli D: Antiulcerogenic activity of Terminalia chebula fruit in experimentally induced ulcer in rats. Pharm Biol. 2011, 49: 262-268. 10.3109/13880209.2010.503709.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gopi KS, Gopala Reddy A, Jyothi K, Anil Kumar B: Acetaminophen-induced Hepato- and Nephrotoxicity and Amelioration by Silymarin and Terminalia chebula in Rats. Toxicol International. 2010, 17: 64-66. 10.4103/0971-6580.72672.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grover IS, Bala S: Antimutagenic activity of T. chebula (myroblan) in Salmonella typhimurium. Ind J Exp Biol. 1992, 30 (4): 339-341.Google Scholar
- Cook NC, Samman S: Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem. 1996, 7: 66-76. 10.1016/0955-2863(95)00168-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hazra B, Sarkar R, Biswas S, Mandal N: Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010, 10: 20-10.1186/1472-6882-10-20.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bridges KR, Hoffman KE: The effects of ascorbic acid on the intracellular metabolism of iron and ferritin. J Biol Chem. 1986, 261: 14273-14277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haro-Vicente JF, Martínez-Graciá C, Ros G: Optimisation of in vitro measurement of available iron from different fortificants in citric fruit juices. Food Chem. 2006, 98: 639-648. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.06.040.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hermes-Lima M, Nagy E, Ponka P, Schulman HM: The iron chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) protects plasmid pUC-18 DNA against .OH mediated strand breaks. Free Radical Bio Med. 1998, 25: 875-880. 10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00117-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lowry OH, Roesborough MJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ: Protein measurement with Folin-Phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951, 193: 265-275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN: A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1984, 21: 130-132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonaventura J, Schroeder WA, Fang S: Human erythrocyte catalase: an improved method of isolation and a re-evaluation of reported properties. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972, 150: 606-617. 10.1016/0003-9861(72)90080-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB: Glutathione S transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974, 249: 7130-7139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ellman GL: Tissue sulfhydryl group. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959, 82: 70-77. 10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buege JA, Aust SD: Microsomal lipid per oxidation. Methods Enzymol. 1978, 52: 302-310.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reznick AZ, Packer L: Oxidative damage to proteins: spectrophotometric method for carbonyl assay. Methods Enzymol. 1994, 233: 357-363.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bergman I, Loxley R: Two improved and simplified methods for the spectrophotometric determination of hydroxyproline. Anal Chem. 1963, 35: 1961-1965. 10.1021/ac60205a053.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kivirikko KI, Laitinen O, Prockop DJ: Modifications of a specific assay for hydroxyproline in urine. Anal Biochem. 1967, 19: 249-255. 10.1016/0003-2697(67)90160-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barry M, Sherlock S: Measurement of liver-iron concentration in needle biopsy specimens. Lancet. 1971, 297: 100-103. 10.1016/S0140-6736(71)90838-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hynes MJ, Coinceanainn M: Investigation of the release of iron from ferritin by naturally occurring antioxidants. J Inorg Biochem. 2002, 90: 18-21. 10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00383-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonkovsky HL: Iron and the liver. Am J Med Sci. 1991, 301: 32-43. 10.1097/00000441-199101000-00006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sayre LM, Moreira PI, Smith MA, Perry G: Metal ions and oxidative protein modification in neurological disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005, 41: 143-164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rothman RJ, Serroni A, Farber JL: Cellular pool of transient ferric iron, chelatable by deferoxamine and distinct from ferritin, that is involved in oxidative cell injury. Mol Pharmacol. 1992, 42: 703-710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galleano M, Simontacchi M, Puntarulo S: Nitric oxide and iron: effect of iron overload on nitric oxide production in endotoxemia. Mol Aspects Med. 2004, 25: 141-154. 10.1016/j.mam.2004.02.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beckman KB, Ames BN: The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev. 1998, 78: 547-581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonkowsky HL, Healey JF, Sinclair PR, Sinclair JF, Pomeroy JS: Iron and the liver. Acute and long-term effects of iron-loading on hepatic haem metabolism. Biochem J. 1981, 196: 57-64.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, Milzani A, Colombo R: Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin Chim Acta. 2003, 329: 23-28. 10.1016/S0009-8981(03)00003-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramm GA, Ruddell RG: Hepatotoxicity of iron overload: mechanisms of iron-induced hepatic fibrogenesis. Semin Liver Dis. 2005, 25: 433-449. 10.1055/s-2005-923315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harrison PM: Ferritin: an iron-storage molecule. Sem Hematol. 1977, 14: 55-70.Google Scholar
- O'Brien RT: Ascorbic acid enhancement of desferrioxamine-induced urinary iron excretion in thalassemia major. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1974, 232: 221-225. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1974.tb20588.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/12/144/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.