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Table 6 Association of perceptions towards CAM with demographic characteristics of the pharmacy students

From: Understanding, perceptions and self-use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Malaysian pharmacy students

Modalities Means Chi-square (p-value)
   Gender Age Race Year of Study Type of University
Traditional Malay medicine 2.74 0.009 0.005 0.001 0.006 0.001
Traditional Chinese medicine 2.32 0.543 0.597 0.001 0.146 0.001
Traditional Indian medicine 2.84 0.890 0.776 0.001 0.004 0.016
Homeopathy 2.73 0.012 0.226 0.001 0.424 0.001
Complementary Medicine
   Faith healing/prayer healing 2.47 0.281 0.161 0.001 0.031 0.001
   Meditation 2.45 0.090 0.632 0.001 0.018 0.019
   Visualization 2.79 0.004 0.031 0.039 0.384 0.480
   Hypnosis 2.77 0.131 0.016 0.001 0.468 0.194
   Music and art therapy 2.41 0.038 0.222 0.001 0.072 0.001
   Mind-body technique 2.60 0.010 0.045 0.020 0.258 0.613
   Massage 2.19 0.993 0.232 0.164 0.678 0.022
   Therapeutic Touch 2.66 0.077 0.136 0.001 0.281 0.115
  1. *1 = very effective, 2 = Effective, 3 = No idea, 4 = Harmful, 5 = Very Harmful