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Table 5 Overall differences and differences in mean score between each year of study and questions assessing understanding on CAM

From: Understanding, perceptions and self-use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Malaysian pharmacy students

Statements Year of Study (Mean) Overall difference Differences between Years of Study
  1 2 3 4   1-2 1-3 1-4 2-3 2-4 3-4
1. The physical and mental health is maintained by an underlying energy or vital force 4.31 4.77 4.61 4.84 0.001 0.005 0.037 0.001 0.524 0.271 0.095
2. Health and disease are a reflection of balance between positive life-enhancing forces and negative destructive forces 4.42 4.94 4.84 5.14 0.001 0.004 0.006 0.001 0.937 0.084 0.109
3. The body is essentially self-healing and the task of a health care provider is to assist in the healing process 4.79 5.26 5.23 5.15 0.016 0.005 0.007 0.026 0.941 0.391 0.372
4. A patient's symptoms should be regarded as a manifestation of general imbalance or dysfunction affecting the whole body 4.47 4.95 4.97 5.12 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.674 0.142 0.323
5. A patient's expectations, health beliefs and values should be integrated into the patient care process 4.83 5.16 5.08 5.25 0.035 0.042 0.077 0.003 0.683 0.456 0.262
6. Complementary therapies are a threat to public health 3.82 3.73 3.51 3.57 0.266 0.065 0.081 0.136 0.209 0.309 0.776
7. Treatments not tested in a scientifically recognized manner should be discouraged 4.61 4.82 4.88 4.82 0.501 0.212 0.132 0.292 0.887 0.900 0.710
8. Effects of complementary therapies are usually the results of a placebo effect 4.01 4.35 3.92 3.92 0.016 0.017 0.668 0.662 0.009 0.006 0.975
9. Complementary therapies include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit 4.36 4.87 4.75 4.77 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.397 0.704 0.633
10. Most complementary therapies stimulate the body's natural therapeutic powers 4.25 4.91 4.74 4.67 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.458 0.137 0.467