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Table 2 Effects of FSE and NFSE on ICAM-1, iNOS, and COX-2 protein production (number of immunopositive cells/mm2)

From: Anti-inflammatory effects of fermented and non-fermented Sophora flavescens: a comparative study

Groups ICAM-1 iNOS COX-2
Control group 22.22 ± 6.22** 10.41 ± 3.88** 9.06 ± 5.04**
Saline group 135.11 ± 21.35 68.28 ± 9.30 71.22 ± 8.23
FSE group 46.41 ± 1.23** 26.22 ± 1.39* 18.08 ± 3.22**
NFSE group 98.41 ± 33.31* 51.32 ± 2.59 50.11 ± 11.32*
  1. Values represent the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. saline group; **p < 0.01 vs. saline group.