Advancement in the understanding of processes leading to explore the reason for stress induced disorders cannot obscure the simple fact that the exhaustion of energy supply still forms the basis that triggers the disorders and collapse of energy metabolism following glucose deprivation in circulation . The desire to control the coping mechanism has led to emergence of science of adaptation, focusing to elucidate the mechanism that may help in modification so that insufficient, excessive and unnecessary responses can be prevented.
Literature reports indicate that noradrenaline is released during stressful conditions  and metabolized to vanillyl mandelic acid(VMA) peripherally and 3-methoxy 4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MOPEG) centrally. In the light of such reports, VMA, the major metabolite of sympathetic amines, was taken as indirect biochemical index to represent the increase in peripheral sympathetic activity during stress. In the present study, the increase in the urinary VMA excretion during stress was used as a non-invasive biochemical marker to study the antistress activity of V. vinifera.
Several studies also indicated that the tissue levels of ascorbic acid decreased on application of stress . Ascorbic acid being a free radical scavenger , it is more likely utilized in scavenging the free radicals involved in stress resulting in its decreased urinary concentration and also it has role in the biosynthesis of noradrenaline i.e., as a cofactor in the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline . Based on the above studies ascorbic acid excretion in urine was taken as an indirect biochemical index to indicate the influence of stress on catecholamine synthesis in rats and antistress (adaptogenic) activity of the Vitis vinifera extract on prior administration of stress induction.
Treatment with Vitis vinifera extract along with stress reversed the stress induced biochemical changes i.e., increase in urinary VMA levels and decrease in urinary ascorbic acid levels, in a dose dependent manner. A number of Indian medicinal plants like Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng etc have been identified for their antistress activity. It was concluded that the antioxidant activity of these plants was partly responsible for their antistress activity . Based on these reports the antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera extract was also done using hydroxyl radical assay method. It was found that Vitis vinifera extract has significant good antioxidant activity which was 8 fold more than that of ascorbic acid.
The antistress and antioxidant activities were correlated with the nootropic activity of the extract since the role of stress and free radicals have been implicated in the loss of memory, concentration and also in Alzheimer's disease [24, 25]. The process of nootropic activity involves acquisition, retention and retrieval and is measured using conditioned avoidance response. The acquisition was quicker in the extract treated rats (100, 200, 300 mg/kg body weight) in comparision to control, indicating the involvement of antistress activity of the extract. When challenged with scopolamine butylbromide (1 mg/kg body weight), the amnesia was less in treated group showing better retention and recovery than control group and the Vitis vinifera extract was shown to decrease memory loss which could be due to its central cholinomimetic activitiy apart from its free radical scavenging mechanisms. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the seed extract provide mechanistic basis in relieving stress by way of combating oxidative damage.