Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study
© Chua et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 12 July 2012
Accepted: 11 January 2013
Published: 22 January 2013
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA.
A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay.
MTT assay showed 0.50% - 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups.
Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) results in progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage. OA is caused by the increase in the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines and catabolic mediators which destroy the cartilage matrix . Usually, there is a balance in the anabolic and catabolic activities in the articular chondrocytes which are involved in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Disturbance in the normal balance triggers the pathological changes in OA and this causes an increase in inflammatory factors and cytokine gene expressions . Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β, 6 and 8 (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) initiate the development of OA by increasing the number of inflammatory cells in the synovial tissue thereby increasing the amount of MMPs and inhibiting the production of proteoglycans [3, 4]. Subsequently, the release of the catabolic mediators such as Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contribute to the catabolic consequences of OA .
Normal articular cartilage is composed of highly organized proteoglycan and collagen network. Aggrecan along with hyaluronic acid creates huge proteoglycan aggregates, and forms negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The structure rigidity of cartilage is conferred mainly by type II collagen. Type II collagen is destroyed in cartilage injury, and it is replaced by type I collagen which possess inferior functions . The degradation of both aggrecan and type II collagen contribute to the progression of OA [7, 8].
One of the recent symptomatic treatments employed for OA involves the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to block cyclooxygenase (COX) . NSAIDs cause an increase in damage to the cartilage. On the other hand, usage of COX-2 specific class of NSAIDs is known to cause cardiovascular and heart diseases . Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and develop new approaches to treat or inhibit the progression of OA.
Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century . EBN has been known for its beneficial effect in promoting health in the Chinese for thousands of years . In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to promote the wellbeing of multiple organs and body systems [13, 14]. Previous study showed an avian epidermal growth factor (EGF) extracted from EBN improved the immune function and cell proliferation . Hiroki Nakagawa et al., 2007  found that EBN is rich in proteoglycans containing non-sulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) which shares similar properties like the matrix in the cartilage. The proteoglycans isolated contained 83% carbohydrates, of which 79% were GalNAc and GlcUA (D-glucuronic acid) in an equimolar ratio. Recently, hot-water extraction of EBN showed the ability to promote cornea cells proliferation and cornea wound healing . To date, all the previous studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of EBN extract prepared by water extraction. Hence, it is hypothesized the water extraction of EBN may prevent human articular chondrocytes (HACs) lose its functions.
Since EBN is produced from swiftlet’s saliva, extraction method using organic solvent such as methanol, chloroform and DMSO, which target the non-water soluble active compound, may not be practical. The EBN extract prepared by water extraction mainly contains polysaccharide and glycoprotein, which can easily precipitate through freezing and thawing processes. Thus, we prepared the EBN water extract in a single batch and stored at 4°C in order to maintain the uniformity and quality of the extract for the experiment. The present study aimed to measure the effects of EBN extract on the anabolic and catabolic activities of HACs.
Edible Bird’s nest extract
Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract coded as HMG was obtained from Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant (CEPP), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) using an in-house developed method adapted from Oda et al., 1998 . The EBN was collected from a bird’s house in Batu Pahat, Johor. Briefly, EBN was grounded in a mortar and pastel; sieved through 0.4 mm wire mesh to separate feathers and other impurities. The grounded EBN then underwent hot-water extraction at 80°C. The liquid was then centrifuged to remove non-dissolved constituents. The EBN extract was stored at 4°C until used.
Human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolation and culture
Prior ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethical Committee of Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM project code: 06-01-06-SF0257). Cartilage was obtained from six osteoarthritic patients aged between 55–70 years old, who gave their consent during total knee replacement surgery (TKR). All patients had OA knee with lesion scored by International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) of grade 4. The cartilage was harvested from the non-weight bearing area of intercondylar notch distal femur. The specimen needed to have a minimum of 300 mg remnant good cartilage, and the isolated HACs expressed collagen type II mRNA with ± 20% differences from the average. Each harvested specimen was placed in normal saline and transported to Biotechnology Laboratory in the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UKM within 24 hours. Each specimen was processed individually to isolate the HACs. The cartilage was separated from the bone, washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2, Gibco, Grand Island, NY), minced into small pieces and digested with 0.6% type II collagenase (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, New Jersey) in an orbital incubator at 37°C for 6–8 hours. The cell suspension was then centrifuged at 600xg for 10 min to pellet the HACs. The isolated HACs were then cultured in growth medium which consisted of Ham’s F-12:Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (Gibco), 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco), 1% of antibiotic and antimycotic (Gibco), 1% of 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid (Sigma, St. Louis, USA) in T25 culture flasks (Nunc, Denmark). All cultures were maintained at 5% CO2 in a temperature of 37°C. Upon 80% confluence, the HACs (Passage 0) were trypsinized using 0.125% trypsin-EDTA (Gibco) and sub-culture (passage 1) into 6-well plates (Nunc) at the 10,000cells/cm2 seeding density. HACs were incubated overnight in growth medium to allow cell attachment before changed to culture medium without FBS and ascorbic acid but supplemented with HMG at various concentrations ranging from 0.00% (control) to 3.00%, for seven days.
The proliferation rate of each cultured HACs in different concentration of HMG was determined by MTT Assay using commercial kit (Sigma, USA) following seven days of culture. The assay was started by adding 2 ml of medium containing 0.5 mg/ml MTT into each culture wells and incubated for 4 hours in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. Consequently, the formed formazan crystal was dissolved by adding 2 ml of MTT Solubilization Solution. The solution was then transferred into 1.5 ml cuvette and the absorbance at 570 nm was taken three times. Two HMG concentrations that gave the highest cell proliferation were then used for the subsequent experiments.
Total RNA extraction
Total RNA from cultured HACs either in HMG supplemented or control group was extracted using TRI REAGENT (Molecular Research Center, Cincinnati, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Briefly, chloroform was added into the TRI REAGENT homogenate to separate the colourless aqueous contained total RNA. Next, the total RNA was precipitated from the aqueous by mixing with isopropanol and 10 μl of Polyacryl carrier (Molecular Research Center). The precipitated RNA was washed with 75% ethanol and air-dried before being dissolved in water. The yield and the purity of the total RNA was determined by spectrophotometer (Bio-Rad, Hercules, USA).
SuperScript™ III First-Strand Synthesis SuperMix (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) was used to synthesis cDNA from extracted total RNA according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The reverse transcription was carried out at 50.0°C for 30 minutes and the cDNA was stored at −20°C until use.
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q PCR)
Primers sequence of genes for quantitative PCR
GenBank Accession Number
Primer Sequence 5′-3′
PCR product size (bp)
F: 5′-tcc ctg agc tga acg gga ag-3′
R: 5′-gga gga gtg ggt gtc gct gt-3′
F: 5′-agg gct cca acg aga tcg aga-3′
R: 5′-tac agg aag cag aca ggg cca-3′
F: 5′-cta tct gga cga agc agc tgg ca-3′
R: 5′-atg ggt gca atg tca atg atgg-3′
F: 5′-gcg gag gaa gtc ggt gaa ga-3′
R: 5′-ccc tct cgc ttc agg tca gc-3′
F: 5′-cac tgt tac cgc cac ttc cc-3′
R: 5′-acc agc gga agt ccc ctt cg-3′
F: 5′-gga caa gct gag gaa gat gc-3′
R: 5′-tcg tta tcc cat gtg tcg aa-3′
F: 5′-tac ccc cag gag aag att cc-3′
R: 5′-ttt tct gaa agt gcc tct tt-3′
F: 5′-gtg cag ttt tgc caa gga gt-3′
R: 5′-ctc tgc acc cag ttt tcc tt-3′
F: 5′-agg gtt gaa aag cat gag ca-3′
R: 5′-ctg gtt gaa aag cat gag ca-3′
F: 5′-tgc ttt gtc ctt tga tgc tg-3′
R: 5′-gga aga gat ggc caa aat ga-3′
F: 5′-ggt ctt gac cac tcc aag gac-3′
R: 5′-ctc ctc gga gac tgg taa tgg-3′
F: 5′-aca agc cta ccc ctc cag at-3′
R: 5′-tcc cgt cag ttg gta ggt tc-3′
F: 5′-tga gca tct acg gtt tgc tg-3′
R: 5′-tgc ttg tct gga aca act gc-3′
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) quantification
The culture medium from the cultured HACs at day seven was collected and kept frozen until the concentration of Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) was measured with Parameter™ PGE2 Immunoassay Kit (R&D Systems Inc, USA). The sample preparation and reaction protocol was following the manufacturer’s instruction. The absorbance at 450 nm was acquired three times. A standard curve was plotted, and the amount of PGE2 released in each sample was determined from the standard curve.
Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) quantification
The amount of sGAG in each group was measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. Chondroitin Sulfate S (Sigma) was used as the control to plot the standard curve. The sGAG concentration in the sample was normalised against the DNA content in the respective specimens.
HACs proliferation with HMG supplementation
Morphological features of HACs in the culture
HMG effects on the mRNA expression of HACs
Ratio of COL II/COL I in HACs cultured in medium supplemented with HMG
COL II/COL I Index Relative to Control
Prostaglandin E2 production in HACs
Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production in HACs
The results of the present study showed EBN extract coded HMG worked effectively in low concentration on the HAC cultures. HMG was able to reduce the dendritic changes on HACs due to culture in serum-free medium. A previous study showed cultured chondrocytes changes its morphology when dedifferentiated in monolayer culture . Only cultures with round-polygonal chondrocytes could synthesize type II collagen and maintain the differentiated phenotype . Thus, HMG was able to reduce the dendritic changes and dedifferentiation on cultured HACs compared to the control group.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-endopeptidases involved in numerous physiological and pathological events involving cartilage including degradation of both the endogenous and newly synthesized extracellular matrix proteins [21, 22]. HMG supplementation may significantly decrease the expression of MMP1 and MMP3 in HACs compared to the control group. This helps in reducing the continuous destruction of cartilage and the degenerative progression of osteoarthritic cartilage [18, 23]. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8) in cultured HACs supplemented with HMG was lower compared to the control group. A significant decrease in IL-1 was observed in the HMG supplemented group. IL-1 interacts with various cytokines including IL-6 and IL-8  to induce the secretion of MMPs and reactive oxygen species that destroy the cartilage matrix . The capability of HMG to suppress these cytokine’s expression may further decrease the MMPs activity and help in the reduction of the cartilage destruction .
In response to IL-1, chondrocytes increase the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through the activation of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [26–28]. In this study, COX-2 and iNOS expression was reduced in HACs supplemented with HMG. Furthermore, PGE2 production was significantly decreased in HMG supplemented HAC cultures compared to the control group. The similar results were demonstrated in a previous study which used avocado soybeans extract . Thus, the ability of HMG to decrease PGE2 production and down-regulate iNOS and COX-2 expression indicated its potential use in slowing down the cartilage destruction in OA.
In chondrocyte monolayer culture, dedifferentiation started when type II collagen expression reduced together with an increase of type I collagen (COL I) expression . In this study, the expression of COL I and COL II mRNA did not state significant differences between the HMG supplemented groups compared to the control group. However, the ratio of COL II/COL I was increased with the supplementation of HMG. The increase of COL II/COL I ratio is necessary to reduce the chondrocytes’ dedifferentiation and improve the chondrocytes’ phenotype . Besides, HMG supplementation also caused a gradual increase in SOX-9 and aggrecan core protein (ACP) expression in cultured HACs compared to the control group. SOX-9 is a transcription factor in chondrogenesis, and its expression is essential for the anabolic activity of the chondrocyte as well as the differentiation of stem cells . While ACP is a major component of the cartilage matrix which helps the cartilage in sustaining continuous mechanical loads . In the present study, both the ACP mRNA expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production were increased by HMG supplementation although no significant difference was recorded. Overall, HMG supplementation may need a longer duration of action before it can cause a significant increase in the anabolic activity of the cultured HACs.
The catabolic activity of cultured chondrocyte was significantly reduced with the HMG supplementation. The ability of HMG to down-regulate MMPs, cytokines and other catabolic mediator expression suggest that HMG may be a potential anti-inflammatory/anti-degenerative agent in treating osteoarthritis. HMG also causes an increase in the chondrocytes’ anabolic activity, although longer duration may be needed to demonstrate the significant changes. Thus, it is concluded that HMG is a potential chondro-protective agent.
This study was supported by ScienceFund grant 06-01-06-SF0257 from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia. The authors acknowledge the technical English editing by Professor Srijit Das.
- Cardile V, Panico A, Gentile B, Borrelli F, Russo A: Effects of propolis on human cartilage and chondrocytes. Life Science. 2003, 73: 1027-1035. 10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00381-3.View Article
- Naoki I, Toshihisa K, Robin P: Mechanism of cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis. Nogoya Journal of Medical Science. 2002, 65: 73-84.
- Yu CL, Sun KH, Shei SC, Tsai CY, Tsai ST, Wang JC, Liao TS, Lin WM, Chen HL, Yu HS, Han SH: Interleukin-8 modulates interleukin -1i beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha release form normal human mononuclear cells. Immunopharmacology. 1994, 27: 207-214. 10.1016/0162-3109(94)90017-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Nietfeld JJ, Wilbrink B, Helle M, Van RJL, Den OW, Swaak AJ, Huber B: Interleukin-1-induced interleukin-6 is required for the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis by interleukin-1 in human articular cartilage. Arthritis Rheum. 1990, 33: 1695-1701. 10.1002/art.1780331113.View ArticlePubMed
- Taskiran D, Stefanovic-Racic M, Geogescu H, Evans C: Nitric oxide mediates suppression of cartilage proteoglycan synthesis by interleukin-1. Biochemistry and Biophysical Research Communication. 1994, 200: 142-148. 10.1006/bbrc.1994.1426.View Article
- Poole AR: An introduction to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Frontier in Bosciences. 1999, 4 (1): D662-D670. 10.2741/Poole.View Article
- Nagase H, Kashiwagi M: Aggrecanases and cartilage matrix degradation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003, 5 (2): 94-103. 10.1186/ar630.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Yagi R, McBurney D, Laverty D: Intra joint comparisons of gene expression patterns in human osteoarthritis suggest a change in chondrocytes phenotype. J Orthop Res. 2005, 23: 1128-1138. 10.1016/j.orthres.2004.12.016.View ArticlePubMed
- Kran PM, Van der Berg WM: Anabolic and destructive mediator in osteoarthritic. Current Opinion in Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2000, 3: 205-211. 10.1097/00075197-200005000-00007.View Article
- Graham DJ, Campen D, Hui R, Spence M, Cheetham C, Levy G, Shoor S, Ray WA: Risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in patients treated by cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective and non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Nested Case–control study. Lancet. 2005, 365: 475-481.View ArticlePubMed
- Lau ASM, Melville DS: International trade in Swiftlet nests with special reference to Hong Kong. 1994, Cambridge (UK): Traffic International
- Ou K, Seow TK, Liang RCMY, Lee BW, Goh DLM, Chua KY, Chung MCC: Identification of serine protease homologue in bird’s nest by an integrated proteomics approach. Electrophoresis. 2001, 22 (16): 3589-3595. 10.1002/1522-2683(200109)22:16<3589::AID-ELPS3589>3.0.CO;2-J.View ArticlePubMed
- Hobbs JJ: Problems in harvest of edible bird’s nest in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Biodivers Conserv. 2004, 13: 2209-2226.View Article
- Chan SW: Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology. Review of scientific research on edible bird’s nest. 2006, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, [http://www.hkfsta.com.hk/articles/special/article7.htm]
- Kong YC, Keung WM, Yip TT, Ko KM, Tsao SW, Ng MH: Evidence that epidermal growth factor is present in swiftlets (Collocalia) nest. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1987, 87 (2): 221-226.
- Hiroki N, Yoichiro H, Toshihisa S, Su CL, Karol M, Kittiwan K, Shuji M, Kazuyuki S, Yu TL: Occurrence of a nonsulfated chondroitin proteoglycan in the dried saliva of Collocalia swiftlets (edible bird’s-nest). Glycobiology. 2007, 17 (2): 157-164.
- Zainal AF, Chua KH, Ng SL, Mohd RES, Lee TH, Norzana AG: Effects of edible bird’s nest (EBN) on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011, 11 (1): 94-10.1186/1472-6882-11-94.View Article
- Tsutsumi R, Ito H, Hiramitsu T, Nishitani K, Akiyoshi T, Yasuda T, Nakamura T: Celecoxib inhibits production of MMP and NO via downregulation of NF-KB and JNK in a PGE2 independent manner in human articular chondrocytes. Rheumatol Int. 2008, 28: 727-736. 10.1007/s00296-007-0511-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Loty S, Sautier JM, Forest N: Phenotypic modulation of nasal septal chondrocytes by cytoskeleton modification. Biorheology. 2000, 37 (1–2): 117-125.PubMed
- Mar KVD, Gauss V, Mark HVD, Muller PB: Relationship between cell shape and type of collagen synthesised as chondrocytes lose their cartilage phenotype in culture. Nature. 1977, 267: 531-532. 10.1038/267531a0.View Article
- LeMaitre V, D’Armiento J: Matrix Metalloproteinases in Development and Disease. Birth Defects Research. 2006, 78 (Part C): 1-10.View ArticlePubMed
- Goldring MB, Otero M, Plumb DA, Dragomir C, Favero M, Hachem KE, Hashimoto K, Roach HI, Olivoto E, Borzi RM, Marcu KB: Roles of inflammatory and anabolic cytokines in cartilage metabolism: signals and multiple effectors converge upon MMP-13 regulation in osteoarthritis. European Cell and Materials. 2011, 21: 202-220.
- Tetlow LC, Adlam DJ, Woolley DE: Matrix Metalloproteinase and proinflammatory cytokine production by chondrocytes of human osteoarthritic cartilage: Associations with degenerative changes. Arthritis Rheum. 2001, 44 (3): 585-594. 10.1002/1529-0131(200103)44:3<585::AID-ANR107>3.0.CO;2-C.View ArticlePubMed
- Bandara G, Georgescu HI, Lin CW, Evans CH: Synovial activation of chondrocytes: evidence for complex cytokine interactions. Agents Actions. 1991, 34: 285-288. 10.1007/BF01993304.View ArticlePubMed
- Martel-Pelletier J, Zafarullah M, Kodama S, Pelletier JP: In vitro effects of interleukin 1 on the synthesis of metalloproteases, TIMP, plasminogen activators and inhibitors in human articular cartilage. J Rheumatol. 1991, 18 (27): 80-84.
- Goldring SR, Goldring MB: The role of cytokines in cartilage matrix degeneration in osteoarthritis. Clinical Orthopeadic. 2004, 427 (suppl): S27-S36.View Article
- Steenport M, Faisal Khan KM, Baoheng D, Barnhard SE, Dannenberg AJ, Falcone DJ: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 induced Macrophage MMP-9: Evidence for the role of TNF-a and cyclooxygenase-2. J Immunol. 2009, 183: 8119-8127. 10.4049/jimmunol.0901925.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Nieminen R, Korhonen R, Moilanen T, Clark AR, Moilanen E: Aurothiomalate inhibits cyclooxygenase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 3 and interleukin-6 expression in chondrocytes by increasing MAPK phosphatase 1 expression and decreasing p38 phosphorylation: MAPK phosphatase 1 as a novel target for anti-rheumatic drugs. Arthritis Rheum. 2010, 62 (6): 1650-1659. 10.1002/art.27409.View ArticlePubMed
- Au RY, Al-Talib TK, Au AY, Phan PV, Frondoza CG: Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) suppress TNF-α, IL-1β COX-2, iNOS gene expression and prostaglandin E2 and oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2007, 15: 1249-1255. 10.1016/j.joca.2007.07.009.View ArticlePubMed
- Chua KH, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Ruszymah BHI: Basic fibroblast growth factor with human serum supplementation: enhancement of human chondrocytes proliferation and promotion of cartilage regeneration. Singapore Med J. 2007, 48 (4): 324-332.PubMed
- Chua KH, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Ruszymah BHI: Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium prevents human chondrocytes dedifferentation and promote the formation of high quality tissue engineering human hyaline cartilage. Eur Cell Mater. 2005, 9: 58-67.PubMed
- Hamid AA, Idrus RB, Saim AB, Sathappan S, Chua KH: Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012, 67 (2): 99-106. 10.6061/clinics/2012(02)03.View Article
- Iozzo RV: Matrix proteoglycans: from molecular design to cellular function. Annual review Biochamistry. 1998, 67: 609-652. 10.1146/annurev.biochem.67.1.609.View Article
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/13/19/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.