The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill
© Formagio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 2 August 2012
Accepted: 29 December 2012
Published: 11 January 2013
Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae) is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant.
The crude methanol extract (EAD) and hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol fractions (HMF) were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg) in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods.
The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg) and EAF (15 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg) exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg.
Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.
KeywordsAnnona dioica Flavonoids Antioxidant Hypoglycaemic Antiproliferative Anti-inflammatory
Plants have been used as a source of new medicinal compounds throughout history and continue to serve as the basis for many of the pharmaceuticals used today . Standard experimental scientific methods are useful for the validation of ethnopharmacological knowledge regarding herbal medicine.
Annona dioica St. Hill. (Annonaceae) is a shrub found in Brazil throughout the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná and Mato Grosso. It is commonly referred to as “ceraticum”, “arixicum” and “ariticum”. In Brazil, the fruits and leaves of this plant are used to treat rheumatism, and the seeds are used to treat diarrhoea . In Paraguay, the leaves are used to make tea or are gargled as an anti-catarrhal, while the edible fruits possess sedative properties. The seeds are used as insecticides or in the treatment of parasitic infections of the skin . Chemical studies of the wood of A. dioica resulted in the isolation and characterisation of six alkaloids , while analysis of the leaves identified four flavonoids . The cytotoxic activities of the flavonoids 3-O-[3′,6′-di-O p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol, 6′ O p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol and the flavonoid rich fraction of A. dioica were assayed in vitro against murine Ehrlich carcinoma and were shown to have significant antiproliferative effects . The extracts of A. dioica Stem bark, heartwood subterranean, stem bark subterranean and of leaves were assayed in vitro against HCT-8 (human colon carcinoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma) and MDA-MB-435 (melanome) tumor cell presented high cytotoxic activity, over 75% . The data indicate the importance of the continuity of phytochemical studies and especially in the evaluation against several human cancer cell lines, in addition other biological activities.
Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenolic compounds that are found in plants and are commonly consumed in the human diet . Some flavonoids have been shown to display a number of interesting biological activities, such as antioxidant [8, 9], antiviral, antifungal , anticancerous [11, 12], anti-angiogenic  and anti-inflammatory activities [14, 15].
The traditional use of medicinal plants is common in Brazil as an alternative to primary health care. Several plants, including Annona species, are used in Brazilian folk medicine. However, these plants are typically used without considering the toxicity and pharmacological aspects. Thus, it is essential to confirm the activity of this plant, especially the anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic and antiproliferative effects, in addition to identifying the specific mechanisms of action. In the present study, we evaluated the free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanol extract (EAD) and fractions of A. dioica and identified the flavonoids found in the leaves of this plant.
The leaves of A. dioica were collected in May 2009 in Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A voucher specimen (DDMS 4598) was deposited at the Herbarium of the Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, Brazil.
Extraction, fractionation and isolation procedure
The air-dried and powdered aerial parts of A. dioica (850 g) were successively extracted via maceration with methanol. The extract was filtered and concentrated in a vacuum to obtain dry, crude methanol extract (EAD) (24.5 g). A portion of this extract (17.8 g) was dissolved in MeOH:H2O (1:1) and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Each extract was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and concentrated under reduced pressure at a temperature not exceeding 35°C. This resulted in the n-hexane (HF, 3.8 g), chloroform (CF, 1.6 g) ethyl acetate (EAF, 6.2 g), and hydromethanol (HMF, 4.6 g) fractions. The EAF (3.2 g) was fractionated on Sephadex LH-20 using H2O, H2O: MeOH (75:25, 50:50, 25:75), and MeOH as the solvents to give ten sub-fractions (AD-1 to AD-10). The purification of sub-fraction AD-3 (505.2 mg) on Sephadex LH-20 using H2O, H2O: MeOH (75:25, 50:50, 25:75), and MeOH as the solvent yielded quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside) (32.4 mg) and mixture of quercetin-3-O-galactoside and kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (42.6 mg).
Identification of the isolated compounds
The isolated compounds were identified analysis of their NMR data. The NMR measurements were carried out on a Varian Mercury Plus BB spectrometer operating at 300 MHz for 1H and 75.5 MHz for 13C using CD3OD as the solvent and tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the internal standard.
The structures of quercetin 3-O β-galactoside and the mixture of quercetin 3-O β-galactoside and kaempferol-3-O β-galactoside were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparing their 1H and 13C NMR data with data reported in the literature [16, 17].
Quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside: 1H NMR δH (300 MHz, CD3OD): 6.20 (1H, d, J = 2.1Hz), 6.39 (1H, d, J = 2.1Hz,), 7.66 (1H, dd, J = 8.7 e 2.4Hz,), 6.80 (1H, d, J = 8.7Hz), 7.51 (1H, d, J = 2.4Hz,), 5.37 (1H, d, J = 7.8Hz,); 13C NMR δc (75,5 MHz, CD3OD): 177.7, 164.4, 161.5, 156.5, 156.3, 148.7, 145.1, 133.7, 122.2, 121.1, 116.2, 115.3, 102.0, 104.2, 98.9, 93.7, 76.1, 73.4, 71.4, 68.2, 60.4.
Kaempferol-3-O-β-galactoside: 1H NMR δH (300 MHz, CD3OD): 6.19 (1H, d, J = 2.1Hz), 6.42 (1H, d, J = 2.1Hz,), 8.06 (2H, d, J = 8.7Hz,), 6.85 (2H, d, J = 8.7Hz), 5.39 (1H, d, J = 7.8Hz). RMN 13C δc (75,5 MHz, CD3OD): 177.8, 164.4, 161.5, 160.2, 156.6, 156.5, 133.4, 131.3, 131,3, 121.3, 115.4, 115.3, 104.2, 101.9, 98.9, 93.9, 76.1, 73.4, 71.4, 68.2, 60.4.
Determination of total phenol content
The total phenolic content in the EAD was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method . Specifically, 100 μL of EAD in methanol (1 g/L) was mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water and 0.5 mL of Folin-Ciocaleu’s (1:10 v/v) reagent. After 3 min, 1.5 mL of a saturated solution of Na2CO3 (2%) was added. After 30 min, the absorbance was measured at 765 nm using a spectrophotometer. The quantification was carried out using a standard curve of gallic acid prepared in 80% methanol, and the results are expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. The equation for the gallic acid curve was y = 6.8502x + 0.0148, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9946. The methanol solution was used as a blank. All of the assays were carried out in triplicate.
Determination of total flavonoids
To determine the level of flavonoids, 500 μL of EAD was mixed with 1.50 mL of 95% ethanol, 0.10 mL of 10% aluminium chloride (AlCl3.6H2O), 0.10 mL of acetate sodium (NaC2H3O2.3H2O) (1 M) and 2.80 mL of distilled water. The tubes were kept at room temperature for 40 min. The optical density was measured at 415 nm using a spectrophotometer. The same procedure was used for the analysis of the blank . To calculate the concentration of flavonoids, we prepared a calibration curve (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0 and 125.0 μg) using quercetin as the standard. We then used these data to generate a linear regression model, and the line equation was obtained and used for the calculation of the experimental samples. The results are expressed in milligrams of quercetin equivalents per gram of extract. The equation of the quercetin curve was y = 12.341x + 0.009, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9977. All of the assays were carried out in triplicate.
DPPH free radical scavenging assay
The free radical scavenging activities of the crude methanol extract, and the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) method . Various concentrations of the samples were added to 2 mL of a methanol DPPH solution (0.1 mM) that was prepared daily. The mixture was shaken and left to stand at room temperature in the dark. After 30 min, the absorbance was measured at 517 nm against a blank containing all of the reagents except for the test samples. All of the assays were carried out in triplicate. BHT was used as the positive control. The IC50 (the concentration required for 50% inhibition of DPPH) was calculated using the graph of % I (inhibition percentage) versus the extract concentration in mg/mL. The percentage of DPPH inhibition (% I) was calculated using the following equation: % I = (A0 - A/A0) x 100, where A0 is the absorbance of DPPH (control), and A is the absorbance of the sample with DPPH.
The experiments were conducted using 30 male Wistar rats (150–230 g) and 30 male Swiss mice (25–35 g) provided by the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD). The animals were maintained under a 12-h light–dark cycle, with controlled humidity (60–80%) and temperature (22 ± 1°C). The animals were acclimatised to the experimentation room for at least 2 h before testing and were used only once throughout the experiments. All experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the U.S. National Institute of Health and were approved by the ethics committee on laboratory animal use of the Centro Universitário da Grande Dourados (UNIGRAN) (Nbr. 118/2010).
The oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic rats
This experiment was designed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of the EAD and EAF in normal rats using the method described by Al-Awadi et al. (1985) . The rats were orally treated daily for 5 d with crude methanol extract (EAD, 100 mg/kg) or the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 15 mg/kg). The reference drug, metformin (MET, 300 mg/kg), was also administered orally to the rats once a day. A separate control group of animals were orally administered the vehicle (saline plus tween 80 0.5%).
The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for non-diabetic rats was performed according to the standard method . Briefly, all groups were selected for the OGT test after food deprivation for 16 h. The baseline (B) glucose level was measured using a glucometer (Accuchek® Performa) prior to glucose administration (2 g/kg body weight).
After measuring the glucose baseline, each group received the specified oral treatment. Serum glucose in a blood sample from the tail vein was measured using a glucometer at 60 min. The data are expressed as the means ± standard error of mean (SEM). Statistical comparisons were performed using a one-way ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test, and the differences were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. All statistical calculations and graphs were prepared using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 for Windows (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA).
Carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice
Five groups of mice (n = 6), were orally treated (p.o.) with the EAD (30–300 mg/kg). A separate control group was orally administered the vehicle (saline plus tween 80 0.5%). Another group of mice was treated subcutaneously with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). After 1 h, the animals received a 50-μl subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Cg (300 μg/paw) dissolved in sterile 0.9% saline in the right hindpaw. The contralateral paw was injected with saline and used as the control. The thickness of paw oedema was measured using a digital micrometer  1 h before any treatment and at several time points (1, 2, and 4 h) after the injection of Cg. The results are expressed in μm, and the difference between the basal and post-injection values are quantified as oedema.
Determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity
To investigate whether oral treatment with EAD (30 and 300 mg/kg) or vehicle could affect the cellular migration induced by Cg, the myeloperoxidase activity was measured. Animals were euthanised 6 h after Cg injection, as described previously . For MPO activity, the tissue was homogenised in 5% (w/v) of 80 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.4) containing 0.5% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The homogenate was centrifuged at 3200 rpm and 4°C for 20 min. Aliquots (30 μl) of each supernatant were mixed with 100 μl of 80 mM phosphate buffer, 85 μl of 0.22 M phosphate buffer and 15 μl of 0.017% H2O2 on a 96-well plate. The reaction was triggered with 20 μl of 3,3,3-tetramethylbenzidine (dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide). The plate was kept at 37°C for 3 min, after which the reaction was stopped by adding 30 μl of 1.46 M sodium acetate, pH 3.0. The enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the optical density at 630 nm and is expressed as the mOD per milligram of protein.
The National Cancer Institute, Frederick MA/USA, kindly provided nine human cancer cell lines: U251 (glioma, CNS), UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drug resistance), 786–0 (renal), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), PC-3 (prostate), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), k-562 (leukaemia) and HT29 (colon). VERO (green monkey kidney cells), a normal cell line, was also used. The stock and experimental cultures were grown in medium containing 5 mL of RPMI 1640 (GIBCO BRL) supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum (GIBCO BRL).
The stock cultures were grown in 5 mL of RPMI-1640 (GIBCO BRL) supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS, GIBCO). A penicillin:streptomycin mixture (1000 U/mL:1000 μg/mL, 1 mL/L RPMI, Nutricel) was added to the experimental cultures.
The cells were plated in 96-well plates (100 μL cells/well) and exposed to different concentrations of the EAD (0.25, 2.5, 25 and 250 μg/mL) in DMSO/RPMI (0.1% v/v) at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 48 h. The final DMSO concentration did not affect cell viability. The cells were then fixed with a trichloroacetic acid solution (50%, v/v), and cell proliferation was determined via spectrophotometric quantification (540 nm, Molecular Devices Versa Max Microplate Reader) of the cellular protein content using a sulphorhodamine B assay . Doxorubicin (0.025-25 μg/mL) was used as a positive control. Three measurements were obtained: first at time zero (T o , at the beginning of incubation) and then 48 h post-incubation for both the compound-free (C) and tested (T) cells. Cell proliferation was determined using the equation 100 x [(T - T o )/C - T o . A cytostatic effect was observed when T ≥ T o , while a cytocidal effect occurred when T < T o . The experiments were performed in triplicate.
1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) λ-carrageenan (Cg), Tween 80, dexamethasone, trichloroacetic acid and doxorubicin were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (MO, USA). Analytical-grade methanol, hexane, anhydrous sodium sulphate and DMSO were obtained from Vetec (RJ, Brazil).
Results and discussion
DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC 50 ) for EAD, HF, CF, EAF, and HMF fractions from A. dioica
After determination of the antioxidant potential, we determined the levels of total phenols and flavonoids in the crude methanol extract. The EAD had high levels of total phenols and flavonoids with values of 187.77 mg/g and 733.20 mg/g, respectively. The total polyphenol and radical scavenging activity have been determined in some fruits of the genus Annona, namely A. muricata, A. cherimolia and A. squamosa.
Flavonoids are very important for the treatment of many diseases due to their potent antioxidant nature. Some authors have reported that flavonoids such as rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside) and quercetin show antioxidant activity [14, 15]. The antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity of flavonoids has been related to the number and position of free hydroxyl groups, which could be a result of their hydrogen donating ability [29, 30]. The antioxidant activity and radical-scavenging activity of flavonoids depend highly on their structure, especially the presence of a free C-3–OH, a free C-4–OH, a double bond between C-2 and C-3, and an O-dihydroxy group in the B-ring . The isolated flavonoids were a good match for these requirements; the only exception is the absence of a free C-3–OH. The antioxidant effects observed for EAD, EAF and HMF are most likely due the presence of quercetin and/or kaempferol and phenolic compounds based on the DPPH free radical activity of these flavonoids reported in the literature .
GI 50 , TGI and LC 50 (μg/mL) for EAD and Dox
Cancer cell lines
NCI/ADR-RES (ovarian resistance)
The results demonstrate that the EAD possesses anticancer activity with GI50 values in the range of 0.03 – 83.47 μg/mL. Regarding the sensitivity against particular cell lines, the EAD was particularly effective in NCI-H460 lung cells (GI50 0.03 μg/mL), HT29 colon cells (GI50 0.10 μg/mL and TGI 4.10 μg/mL), NCI/ADR-RES ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drug resistance cells (GI50 1.95 μg/mL), OVCAR-3 ovarian cells (GI50 6.38 μg/mL) and MCF7 breast cells (GI50 11.10 μg/mL). Lung cancer is among the most common types of cancer throughout the world and shows only a modest response to the chemotherapeutic treatments available. For this type of cancer, monotherapy presents only a partial response in 15% to 20% of cases, and even with combined treatments, the therapeutic effect does not exceed 40% - 50%.
The criteria of the American National Cancer Institute to consider a crude extract promising for further purification is a GI50 lower than 30 μg/mL . A number of studies have demonstrated anticancer activity associated with flavonoids .
Extracts from different species of the Annonaceae family have been shown to be active. The strongest cytotoxic activities were detected for the ethanol extracts of the A. crassiflora root bark .
The marked increase in the myeloperoxidase activity (indirect evidence for neutrophil influx) into the paw indicated an inflammatory process induced by Cg, instead of oedema formation only. The injection of Cg (300 μg/paw) increased MPO activity after 6 h, and oral treatment with EAD (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) inhibited the increase in MPO activity induced by Cg. The observed inhibitions were 42 ± 6% (30 mg/kg), 42 ± 9% (100 mg/kg), and 51 ± 3% (300 mg/kg). The positive control (dexamethasone) was also able to inhibit MPO activity compared to the control group (Figure 2B). This result corroborates the anti-oedematogenic properties of EAD (Figure 2A) and shows the anti-inflammatory efficacy of EAD, suggesting that these effects are comparable with those of commercially available anti-inflammatory steroidal products, such as dexamethasone.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic screening for phenols and flavonoids and the first evaluation of the biological activities of the plant A. dioica. Our study demonstrates the potential anti-oxidant, anticancer, hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona dioica. This effect can be attributed the presence of flavonoids.
Crude methanol extract
Ethyl acetate fraction
Fetal bovine serum
- GI50 :
- IC50 :
- LC50 :
Ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drug resistence
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Oral glucose tolerance test
Green monkey Kidney
We are grateful to Fundect and CNPq for fellowships for financial support. The authors are grateful to Dra. Zefa Valdevina Pereira (Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambiental – UFGD, Dourados-MS) for botanical identification of plant material and Dra. Maria Helena Sarragiotto (Departamento de Química – UEM, Maringá-PR) for technical support.
- Cragg GM, Grothaus PG, Newman DJ: Impact of natural products on developing new anti-cancer agents. Chem Rev. 2009, 109: 3012-3043. 10.1021/cr900019j.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pott A, Pott VJ: Plantas do Pantanal; Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Pantanal. 1994, Brasília, Brazil: CPAP, Serviço de Produção de Informação, 34-Google Scholar
- Gonzalez TD: Catálogo de plantas medicinales usadas en paraguay. 1992, Comuneros: AsunciónGoogle Scholar
- Dos Santos PRD, Morais AA, Braz-Filho R: Alkaloids from Annona dioica. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2003, 14: 396-400.Google Scholar
- Vega MRG, Esteves-Souza A, Vieira IJC, Mathias L, Braz-Filho R, Echevarria A: Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells DNA-topoisomerase I and II. J Braz Chem Soc. 2007, 18: 1554-1559. 10.1590/S0103-50532007000800016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmoud TS, Marques MR, QPessoa C, Leticia VC, Lotufo LVC, Magalhães HIF, Moraes MO, Lima DP, Tininis AG, Oliveira JE: In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2011, 21: 456-464. 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000061.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beecher GR: Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J Nutr. 2003, 133: 48S-54S.Google Scholar
- Giovannini C, Filesi C, D’Archivio M, Scazzocchio B, Santangelo C, Masella R: Polyphenols and endogenous antioxidant defences: effects on glutathione and glutathione related enzymes. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2006, 42: 336-347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sang S, Hou Z, Lambert JD, Yang CS: Redox properties of tea polyphenols and related biological activities. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005, 7: 1704-1714. 10.1089/ars.2005.7.1704.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedman M: Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007, 51: 116-134. 10.1002/mnfr.200600173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Fang H, Xu W: Recent advance in the research of flavonoids as anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007, 7: 663-678. 10.2174/138955707781024463.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fresco P, Borges F, Diniz C, Marques MP: New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med Res Rev. 2006, 26: 747-766. 10.1002/med.20060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oak MH, El Bedoui J, Schini-Kerth VB: Antiangiogenic properties of natural polyphenols from red wine and green tea. J Nutr Biochem. 2005, 16: 1-8. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.09.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dryden GW, Song M, McClain C: Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006, 22: 165-170. 10.1097/01.mog.0000208463.69266.8c.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Middleton E: Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998, 439: 175-182. 10.1007/978-1-4615-5335-9_13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu Y, Foo LY: The polyphenol constituents of grape pomace. Food Chem. 1999, 65: 1-8. 10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00245-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benini B, Chulia AJ, Kaouadji M, Thomassin F: Flavonoid glycosides from Erica cinerea. Phytochemistry. 1992, 31: 2483-2486. 10.1016/0031-9422(92)83305-I.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG: Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in burkina fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemintry. 2005, 91: 571-577. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin JY, Tang CY: Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chem. 2007, 101: 140-147. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.014.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blois MS: Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature. 1958, 181: 1199-1200. 10.1038/1811199a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Du Vigneaud V, Karr WG: Carbohydrate utilization, rat of disappearance of D-glucose from the blood. J Bio Chem. 1925, 66: 281-300.Google Scholar
- Al-Awadi FM, Khattar MA, Gumma KA: On the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of a plant extract. Diabetologia. 1985, 28: 432-434. 10.1007/BF00280886.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharma JN, Samud AM, Asmawi MZ: Comparison between plethysmome ter and micrometer methods to measure acute paw oedema for screening anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Inflammopharmacology. 2004, 12: 89-94. 10.1163/156856004773121400.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Young LM, Kheifets JB, Ballaron SJ, Young JM: Edema and cell infiltration in the phorbol ester-treated mouse ear are temporally separate and can be differentially modulated by pharmacologic agents. Agents Actions. 1989, 26: 335-341. 10.1007/BF01967298.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Monks A, Scudiero D, Skehan P, Shoemaker R, Paull K, Vistica D, Hose C, Langley J, Cronise P, Vaigro-Wolff A, Gray-Goodrich M, Campbell H, Mayo J, Boyd M: Feasibility of a high-flux anticancer drug screen using a diverse panel of cultured human tumor cell lines. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991, 83: 757-766. 10.1093/jnci/83.11.757.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hassimotto NMA, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM: Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J Agric Food Chem. 2005, 53: 2928-2935. 10.1021/jf047894h.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vasco C, Ruales J, Kamal-Eldin A: Total phenoliccompoundsand antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chem. 2008, 111: 816-823. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.054.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan LY, Teng LT, Jhi TJ: Antioxidant properties of guava fruit: comparison with some local fruits. Sunway Acad J. 2006, 3: 9-20.Google Scholar
- Mora A, Paya M, Rı’os JL, Alcaraz MJ: Structure–activity relationships of polymetoxyflavones and other flavonoids as inhibitors of non-enzymic lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990, 40: 793-797. 10.1016/0006-2952(90)90317-E.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cotelle N, Bernier JL, Henichart JP, Catteau JP, Gaydou E, Wallet JC: Scavenger and antioxidant properties of ten synthetic flavones, free Radical. Biol Med. 1992, 12: 211-219.Google Scholar
- Burda S, Oleszek W: Antioxidant and antiradical activities of flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2001, 49: 2774-2779. 10.1021/jf001413m.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seyoum A, Asres K, El-Fiky FK: Structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of flavonoids. Phytochemistry. 2006, 67: 2058-2070. 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suffness M, Pezzuto JM: Assays related to cancer drug discovery. Methods in plant biochemistry: assays for bioactivity. Edited by: Hostettmann K. 1990, London: Academic, 71-133.Google Scholar
- Kumar SK, Hager E, Pettit C, Gurulingappa H, Davidson NE, Khan SR: Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel boronic-chalcone deri- vatives as antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 2003, 46: 2813-10.1021/jm030213+.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Mesquita ML, De Paula JE, Pessoa C, De Moraes MO, Costa-Lotufo LV, Raphael Grougnet R, Sylvie Michel S, Tillequin F, LS F: Cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine against cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 123: 439-445. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/13/14/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.