Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg
- Niaz Ali†1Email author,
- Umer Aleem†1,
- Syed Wadood Ali Shah2,
- Ismail Shah2,
- Muhammad Junaid2,
- Ghayour Ahmed2,
- Waqar Ali3 and
- Mehreen Ghias2
© Ali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 8 January 2013
Accepted: 14 June 2013
Published: 18 June 2013
Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed.
Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract.
LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively.
The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is evident from acute toxicity study that it is safe in concentration 100 mg/kg. Further work is required to isolate pharmacologically active compounds.
KeywordsRubus fruticosus Anthelmintic Ascaridia galli Raillietina spiralis Jejunum Antispasmodic
There are 6000 species of plants occurring in Pakistan that indicate its potential wealth. 700 species of these are used for their medicinal values, while several of them are exported . Several hundred species are used in herbal remedies, in indigenous system of medicine, because of their medicinal importance that may be attributed to their phytochemicals .
R. fruticosus is locally known as “Karwara” . It grows mostly in Northern areas of Pakistan like Malakand, Kotli, Chitral and Dir districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The plant is scrambling perennial shrub, which belongs to family Rosaceae. The family is largest dicot family of vascular plants which comprises 85 genera and 3000 species, all of which are mostly located in tropics to alpine pastures of Pakistan as evergreen or deciduous trees, shrubs and herbs .
R. fruticosus is a perennial shrub, with spiny branches, leaves tri or penta foliate; leaflets leathery, elliptic or obviate, toothed, green above, grey-woolly beneath, the terminal largest; leaf stalk with long bristles; flowers white, in dense short branched cluster and fruits are black.
It contains ascorbic acid, organic acids, tannins and volatile oils . On the basis of these chemical constituents, the plant is very useful antidiarrheal and soothes inflamed mucosa. Decoction of leaves is used as tonic and gargle. Poultice of the leaves is applied to abscesses and skin ulcers [6, 7].
Its ethno-medical and biological activities include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant. The plant is traditionally used in the treatment of wound healing, dysentery, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, cystitis and diabetes mellitus . Since the plant has potential medicinal properties as antispasmodic and anthelmintic, therefore, we conducted current work to investigate: 1) the antispasmodic activity of R. fruticosus in the context of abdominal pain, and 2) the anthelmintic activity of R. fruticosus.
Collection, authentication and extraction of plant materials
Mature fruits of R. fruticosus were collected from the nearby hilly areas of University of Malakand in the month of July, 2008. The plant was identified by plant taxonomist Professor Dr. Jehandar Shah. A voucher specimen (Rf-01-2008) was submitted to the herbarium of University of Malakand. The fruits (0.8 kg) were dried in shade, pulverized and macerated in hydro methanolic mixture (70%) for 5 days. The materials were filtered off. The filtrate was combined and concentrated using rotary evaporator at controlled temperature 40–45°C. A dark brownish extract 30 g was obtained.
Preliminary phytochemical screenings
Solvents, chemicals, drugs and animals
Commercial grade solvents were double distilled before its use in the experiments. Analytical grade (Merck grade) chemicals were used in the experiments. All solutions were prepared on the same day of experiments. Acetylcholine was purchased from Poole chemicals, UK. Rests of the chemicals were purchased from Merck. Rabbits (either sex) were purchased from the local market. Their average weight was in range of 1.5-2.5 kg. They were housed in the animal house of University of Malakand and Khyber Medical University, Peshawar. Roundworms and tapeworms were obtained from the intestines of freshly slaughtered fowls. All fecal matters were removed from intestines with help of normal saline solution. The worms were collected after dissection of intestines and maintained in normal saline solution, having an average size of roundworms and tapeworms as 5–7 cm and 6–7 cm, respectively. Zoologist at department of Zoology, University of Malakand identified the parasites. Experimental protocols were in compliance with “Animals Byelaws 2008 of the University of Malakand”. Ethical Committee of Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand approved the experimental protocols.
Interpretation of data and statistical analysis
Chart 7, supplied with the Power Lab, was used to interpret the data. Statistical analysis was performed at 95% confidence interval. P value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Graph Pad prism was used to calculate mean, SEM and draw the curves for EC50 shift.
Acute toxicity studies
Acute toxicity studies were performed in two phases in mice. Mice of either sex were fasted overnight. The crude methanol extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p). In phase I, acute toxicity studies of test samples were performed in concentrations 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg (I.p) to determine lethal range. Six mice were in each test group. In the second phase, we conducted the study in concentrations 750, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg in test animals. Numbers of deaths were recorded within 24 hours. Per cent lethality was noted .
Brine shrimp cytotoxicity
Brine shrimps’ eggs were hatched in laboratory at room temperature. 10 shrimps, 5 ml sea water and extract in concentrations 10, 100 and 1000 ppm were added to a vial. An incubation period of 24 hours was given at room temperature. Visual counting of dead brine shrimps (laying at bottom) was performed. Per cent cytotoxicity was determined .
Anthelmintic activity was performed against test parasites round worms (Raillietina spiralis) and tape worms (Ascaridia galli). The parasites were obtained from the intestine of infested fowls obtained from the nearby slaughter house of Chakdara. They were maintained in distilled water in petri dishes at room temperature. Tests solutions of R. fruticosus were prepared in concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml. Approximately 25 ml of respective solutions along with parasites of equal size were kept in the petri dishes. Time for paralysis (anthelmintic activity) was recorded when no movement was observed except when shaken vigorously. Time for death (parasiticidal activity) was recorded when the worms did not show any movement by vigorous shaking nor when dipped in warm water (50°C). Distilled water was used as negative control. Albendazole and piperazine citrate were used as positive controls [14–17].
Effects on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunum preparations and KCl induced contractions
Rabbits of either sex were subjected to cervical dislocation. Their abdomens were opened and pieces of jejunums were removed. Jejunal preparations were maintained in Tyrode’s solution, which was constantly aerated with carbogen gas (95% oxygen: 5% carbon dioxide mixture). The tissues were freed from mesentery. The concentrations of constituents of Tyrode’s solution were (mM): KCl 2.68, NaCl 136.9, MgCl2 1.05, NaHCO3 11.90, NaH2 PO4 0.42, CaCl2 1.8 and glucose 5.55. Preparations of about 1.3 - 1.5 cm lengths were mounted in 10 ml tissue bath containing Tyrode’s solution. Temperature was maintained as 37 ± 1°C. After stabilization, the test samples were tried in concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0,5 and 10 mg/ml. Force Transducer (Model No: MLT 0210/A Pan Lab S.I.) connected with Power lab (Model No: 4/25 T) was used to record intestinal responses.
Similarly, sustained contractions were produced by 80 mM solution of KCl in the rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Test samples were tested in similar concentrations to determine its possible mode of action through calcium channels [18–21].
Effects on calcium chloride curves
Since the test extract produced concentration dependent relaxation on KCL-induced contractions, hence, we constructed calcium chloride curves to search for its possible mode of action. Tissues were decalcified by K-Normal and K-rich solution thereafter. Constituents and concentration (mM) of K-Rich Tyrode’s solution was KCl 50, NaCl 91.04, MgCl2 1.05, NaHCO3 11.90, NaH2 PO4 0.42, glucose 5.55 and EDTA 0.1. Earlier the tissues were stabilized in normal Tyrode’s solution. Control Calcium Chloride Curves (CCs) were constructed twice. Control maximum was used as standard curve for comparison. The CCs were constructed in the presence of test samples where an incubation period of one hour was given. Effects on EC50 were compared with respective control. Similarly, curves for verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker, were constructed. Effects on EC50 were noted and compared for possible right shift [22–24].
Results and discussion
Anthelmintic activity of R. fruticosus against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli
Test samples and standards
The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explain traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is evident from acute toxicity study that it is safe at concentration 100 mg/kg. Further work is required to isolate the pharmacologically active compound(s).
Crude methanolic extract of Rubus fruticosus.
The author thanks Professor Dr. Jehandar Shah for identifying the plant. The authors want to thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing research grant no: 20-1723/R&D/10 for establishment of pharmacology laboratory at IBMS, KMU.
- Shinwari ZK, Rehman UM: Pictorial Guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan. 2006, Kohat: KUST
- Zaman K: Hundred drug plants of West Pakistan. 1970, Peshawar: Medicinal plants Branch Pakistan Forest Institute
- Zabihullah Q, Rashid A, Akhtar N: Ethnobotanical survey in Kot Manzaray Baba valley Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Pak J Pl Sci. 2006, 12 (Suppl 2): 115-121.
- Ali SI, Qasir M, Landrein S, Borosova R, Oborne J, Shah M, Kornik J: Roseae potentilleae. Flora of Pakistan. 2009, 1-138. 216
- Wada L, Ou B: Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Oregon caneberries. J Agr Food Chem. 2002, 50 (Suppl 12): 3495-500.View Article
- Sher H: Ethnoecological evaluation of some medicinal and aromatic plants of Kot Malakand Agency. Pak Sci Res Essays. 2011, 6 (Suppl 10): 2164-2173.
- Riaz M, Ahmad M, Rahman N: Antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root and stem of Rubus fruticosus. J Med Pl Res. 2011, 5 (Suppl 24): 5920-5924.
- Health from nature, Remedies and natural cures. Available on link: http://health-from-nature.net/Blackberry.html [accessed date: 29-05-2012]
- Aduragbenro DA, Yeside OO, Adeolu AA, Olanrewaju MJ, Ayotunde SA, Olumayokun AO, Janet MM: Blood pressure lowering effect of Adenanthera pavonina Seed extract on normotensive rats. Rec Nat Prod. 2009, 2009 (3): 282-289.
- Harborne JB: Phytochemical methods. 1973, London: Chapman and Hall, 117-
- Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB: Practical Pharmacognosy. 1994, Pune, Mumbai: Nirali Prakashan, 2
- Rehman AU, Mannan A, Inayatullah S, Akhtar MZ, Qayyum M, Mirza B: Biological evaluation of wild thyme (Tymus serpyllum). Pharm Biol. 2009, 47 (Suppl 8): 628-633.
- Rehman AU, Choudhary MI, Thomsen : Manual of Bioassay Techniques for Natural Product Research. 1991, Amsterdam: Harward Academic Press, 82-84.
- Ajaiyeoba EO, Onocha PA, Olarenwaju OT: In vitro anthelmintic properties of Buchholzia coriaceae and Gynandropsis gynandra extract. Pharm Biol. 2001, 39 (Suppl 3): 217-220.View Article
- Vigar Z: Atlas of Medical Parasitology. 1984, Singapore: P. G. Publishing House, 242-2
- Dash GK, Suresh P, Kar DM, Ganpaty S, Panda SB: Evaluation of evolvulus alsinoides Linn. For anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities. J Nat Rem. 2002, 2 (Suppl 2): 182-185.
- Shivkumar YM, Kumar VL: Anthelmintic activity of latex of Calotropis procera. Pharma Biol. 2003, 41 (Suppl 4): 263-265.View Article
- Ghayur MN, Gilani AH: Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig Dis Sci. 2005, 50: 1889-1897. 10.1007/s10620-005-2957-2.View ArticlePubMed
- Shah SWA, Kamil SA, Ahmad W, Ali N: Spasmogenic, spasmolytic and antihypertensive activity of Forsskalea tenacissima. Afr J Pharma Pharmacol. 2010, 4: 381-385.
- Farre AJ, Colomb M, Gutierrez B: Differential effects of various calcium antagonists. Gen Pharmacol. 1991, 22: 177-181. 10.1016/0306-3623(91)90331-Y.View ArticlePubMed
- Niaz A, Shah SWA: Spasmolytic Activity of Fruits of Tamarindus indica L. JY Pharma. 2010, 2 (Suppl 3): 261-264.
- Niaz A, Shah SWA: Antispasmodic activity of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011, 24 (Suppl 2): 171-174.
- Bolton TB: Mechanism of action of transmitters and other substances on smooth muscles. Physiol Rev. 1979, 59: 606-718.PubMed
- Karaki H, Wiess G: Mini-review: Calcium release in smooth muscles. Life Sci. 1983, 42: 111-112.View Article
- Tawaha KA: Cytotoxicity evaluation of Jordanian wild plants using brine shrimp lethality test. J Appl Sci. 2006, 8 (Suppl 1): 12-17.
- Ali N, Shah SWA, Shah I, Ahmed G, Ghias M, Khan I: Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011, 11: 106-12. 10.1186/1472-6882-11-106.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/13/138/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.